floor 0.14.0

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The typesafe, reactive and lightweight SQLite abstraction for your Flutter applications. This library is the runtime dependency.

Floor

Floor provides a neat SQLite abstraction for your Flutter applications inspired by the Room persistence library. It comes with automatic mapping between in-memory objects and database rows while still offering full control of the database with the use of SQL. As a consequence, it's necessary to have an understanding of SQL and SQLite in order to harvest Floor's full potential.

  • typesafe
  • reactive
  • lightweight
  • SQL centric
  • no hidden magic
  • no hidden costs
  • iOS, Android, Linux, macOS, Windows

⚠️ The library is on its way to its first stable release! After integrating type converters and embeddable objects, the API surface won't change until after 1.0.

pub package build status codecov

Table of Contents #

  1. Quick Start
  2. Architecture
  3. Entities
    1. Supported Types
    2. Foreign Keys
    3. Primary Keys
    4. Indices
    5. Ignoring Fields
    6. Inheritance
  4. Database Views
  5. Data Access Objects
    1. Queries
    2. Data Changes
    3. Streams
    4. Transactions
    5. Inheritance
  6. Migrations
  7. In-Memory Database
  8. Initialization Callback
  9. Platform Support
  10. Testing
  11. Examples
  12. Naming
  13. Bugs and Feedback
  14. License

Quick Start #

  1. Add the runtime dependency floor as well as the generator floor_generator to your pubspec.yaml. The third dependency is build_runner which has to be included as a dev dependency just like the generator.

    • floor holds all the code you are going to use in your application.

    • floor_generator includes the code for generating the database classes.

    • build_runner enables a concrete way of generating source code files.

     dependencies:
       flutter:
         sdk: flutter
       floor: ^0.14.0
    
     dev_dependencies:
       floor_generator: ^0.14.0
       build_runner: ^1.7.3
    
  2. Create an Entity

    It will represent a database table as well as the scaffold of your business object. @entity marks the class as a persistent class. It's required to add a primary key to your table. You can do so by adding the @primaryKey annotation to an int property. There is no restriction on where you put the file containing the entity.

     // entity/person.dart
    
     import 'package:floor/floor.dart';
    
     @entity
     class Person {
       @primaryKey
       final int id;
    
       final String name;
    
       Person(this.id, this.name);
     }
    
  3. Create a DAO (Data Access Object)

    This component is responsible for managing access to the underlying SQLite database. The abstract class contains the method signatures for querying the database which have to return a Future or Stream.

    • You can define queries by adding the @Query annotation to a method. The SQL statement has to get added in parenthesis. The method must return a Future or Stream of the Entity you're querying for.

    • @insert marks a method as an insertion method.

     // dao/person_dao.dart
    
     import 'package:floor/floor.dart';
    
     @dao
     abstract class PersonDao {
       @Query('SELECT * FROM Person')
       Future<List<Person>> findAllPersons();
    
       @Query('SELECT * FROM Person WHERE id = :id')
       Stream<Person> findPersonById(int id);
    
       @insert
       Future<void> insertPerson(Person person);
     }
    
  4. Create the Database

    It has to be an abstract class which extends FloorDatabase. Furthermore, it's required to add @Database() to the signature of the class. Make sure to add the created entity to the entities attribute of the @Database annotation.

    In order to make the generated code work, it's required to also add the listed imports.

     // database.dart
    
     // required package imports
     import 'dart:async';
     import 'package:floor/floor.dart';
     import 'package:sqflite/sqflite.dart' as sqflite;
    
     import 'dao/person_dao.dart';
     import 'entity/person.dart';
    
     part 'database.g.dart'; // the generated code will be there
    
     @Database(version: 1, entities: [Person])
     abstract class AppDatabase extends FloorDatabase {
       PersonDao get personDao;
     }
    
  5. Make sure to add part 'database.g.dart'; beneath the imports of this file. It's important to note that 'database' has to get exchanged with the filename of the database definition. In this case, the file is named database.dart.

  6. Run the generator with flutter packages pub run build_runner build. To automatically run it, whenever a file changes, use flutter packages pub run build_runner watch.

  7. Use the generated code. For obtaining an instance of the database, use the generated $FloorAppDatabase class, which allows access to a database builder. The name is being composed by $Floor and the database class name. The string passed to databaseBuilder() will be the database file name. For initializing the database, call build() and make sure to await the result.

    In order to retrieve the PersonDao instance, invoking the persoDao getter on the database instance is enough. Its functions can be used as shown in the following snippet.

     final database = await $FloorAppDatabase.databaseBuilder('app_database.db').build();
     final personDao = database.personDao;
    
     final person = Person(1, 'Frank');
     await personDao.insertPerson(person);
    
     final result = await personDao.findPersonById(1);
    

For further examples take a look at the example and floor_test directories.

Architecture #

The components for storing and accessing data are Entity, Data Access Object (DAO) and Database.

The first, Entity, represents a persistent class and thus a database table. DAOs manage the access to Entities and take care of the mapping between in-memory objects and table rows. Lastly, Database, is the central access point to the underlying SQLite database. It holds the DAOs and, beyond that, takes care of initializing the database and its schema. Room serves as the source of inspiration for this composition, because it allows creating a clean separation of the component's responsibilities.

The figure shows the relationship between Entity, DAO and Database.

Floor Architecture

Entities #

An entity is a persistent class. Floor automatically creates the mappings between the in-memory objects and database table rows. It's possible to supply custom metadata to Floor by adding optional values to the Entity annotation. It has the additional attribute of tableName which opens up the possibility to use a custom name for that specific entity instead of using the class name. foreignKeys allows adding foreign keys to the entity. More information on how to use these can be found in the Foreign Keys section. Indices are supported as well. They can be used by adding an Index to the indices value of the entity. For further information of these, please refer to the Indices section.

@PrimaryKey marks property of a class as the primary key column. This property has to be of type int. The value can be automatically generated by SQLite when autoGenerate is enabled. For more information about primary keys and especially compound primary keys, refer to the Primary Keys section.

@ColumnInfo enables custom mapping of single table columns. With the annotation, it's possible to give columns a custom name and define if the column is able to store null.

Limitations

  • Floor automatically uses the first constructor defined in the entity class for creating in-memory objects from database rows.
  • There needs to be a constructor.
@Entity(tableName: 'person')
class Person {
  @PrimaryKey(autoGenerate: true)
  final int id;

  @ColumnInfo(name: 'custom_name', nullable: false)
  final String name;

  Person(this.id, this.name);
}

Supported Types #

Floor entities can hold values of the following Dart types which map to their corresponding SQLite types and vice versa.

  • int - INTEGER
  • double - REAL
  • String - TEXT
  • bool - INTEGER (0 = false, 1 = true)
  • Uint8List - BLOB

Primary Keys #

Whenever a compound primary key is required (e.g. n-m relationships), the syntax for setting the keys differs from the previously mentioned way of setting primary keys. Instead of annotating a field with @PrimaryKey, the @Entity annotation's primaryKey attribute is used. It accepts a list of column names that make up the compound primary key.

@Entity(primaryKeys: ['id', 'name'])
class Person {
  final int id;

  final String name;

  Person(this.id, this.name);
}

Foreign Keys #

Add a list of ForeignKeys to the Entity annotation of the referencing entity. childColumns define the columns of the current entity, whereas parentColumns define the columns of the parent entity. Foreign key actions can get triggered after defining them for the onUpdate and onDelete properties.

@Entity(
  tableName: 'dog',
  foreignKeys: [
    ForeignKey(
      childColumns: ['owner_id'],
      parentColumns: ['id'],
      entity: Person,
    )
  ],
)
class Dog {
  @PrimaryKey()
  final int id;

  final String name;

  @ColumnInfo(name: 'owner_id')
  final int ownerId;

  Dog(this.id, this.name, this.ownerId);
}

Indices #

Indices help speeding up query, join and grouping operations. For more information on SQLite indices please refer to the official documentation. To create an index with floor, add a list of indices to the @Entity annotation. The example below shows how to create an index on the custom_name column of the entity.

The index, moreover, can be named by using its name attribute. To set an index to be unique, use the unique attribute.

@Entity(tableName: 'person', indices: [Index(value: ['custom_name'])])
class Person {
  @primaryKey
  final int id;

  @ColumnInfo(name: 'custom_name', nullable: false)
  final String name;

  Person(this.id, this.name);
}

Ignoring Fields #

Getters, setters and all static fields of entities are ignored by default and thus excluded from the library's mapping. In case further fields should be ignored, the @ignore annotation should be used and applied as shown in the following snippet.

class Person {
  @primaryKey
  final int id;

  final String name;

  @ignore
  String nickname;

  // ignored by default
  String get combinedName => "$name ($nickname)";

  Person(this.id, this.name);
}

Inheritance #

Just like Daos, entities (and database views) can inherit from a common base class and use their fields. The entity just has to extend the base class. This construct will be treated as if all the fields in the base class are part of the entity, meaning the database table will have all columns of the entity and the base class.

The base class does not have to have a separate annotation for the class. Its fields can be annotated just like normal entity columns. Foreign keys and indices have to be declared in the entity and can't be defined in the base class.

class BaseObject {
  @PrimaryKey()
  final int id;

  @ColumnInfo(name: 'create_time', nullable: false)
  final String createTime;

  @ColumnInfo(name: 'update_time')
  final String updateTime;

  BaseObject(
    this.id,
    this.updateTime, {
    String createTime,
  }) : this.createTime = createTime ?? DateTime.now().toString();

  @override
  List<Object> get props => [];
}

@Entity(tableName: 'comments')
class Comment extends BaseObject {
  final String author;

  final String content;

  Comment(this.author,
      {int id, this.content = '', String createTime, String updateTime})
      : super(id, updateTime, createTime: createTime);
}

Database Views #

If you want to define static SELECT-statements which return different types than your entities, your best option is to use @DatabaseView. A database view can be understood as a virtual table, which can be queried like a real table.

A database view in floor is defined and used similarly to entities, with the main difference being that access is read-only, which means that update, insert and delete functions are not possible. Similarly to entities, the class name is used if no viewName was set.

@DatabaseView('SELECT distinct(name) AS name FROM person', viewName: 'name')
class Name {
  final String name;

  Name(this.name);
}

Database views do not have any foreign/primary keys or indices. Instead, you should manually define indices which fit to your statement and put them into the @Entity annotation of the involved entities.

Setters, getters and static fields are automatically ignored (like in entities), you can specify additional fields to ignore by annotating them with @ignore.

After defining a database view in your code, you have to add it to your database by adding it to the views field of the @Database annotation:

@Database(version: 1, entities: [Person], views: [Name])
abstract class AppDatabase extends FloorDatabase {
  // DAO getters
}

You can then query the view via a DAO function like an entity.

It is possible for DatabaseViews to inherit common fields from a base class, just like in entities.

Limitations

  • It is now possible to return a Stream object from a DAO method which queries a database view. But it will fire on any @update, @insert, @delete events in the whole database, which can get quite taxing on the runtime. Please add it only if you know what you are doing! This is mostly due to the complexity of detecting which entities are involved in a database view.

Data Access Objects #

These components are responsible for managing access to the underlying SQLite database and are defined as abstract classes with method signatures and query statements. DAO classes can use inherited methods by implementing and extending classes while also using mixins.

@dao
abstract class PersonDao {
  @Query('SELECT * FROM Person')
  Future<List<Person>> findAllPersons();

  @Query('SELECT * FROM Person WHERE id = :id')
  Stream<Person> findPersonById(int id);

  @insert
  Future<void> insertPerson(Person person);
}

Queries #

Method signatures turn into query methods by adding the @Query() annotation with the query in parenthesis to them. Be patient about the correctness of your SQL statements. They are only partly validated while generating the code. These queries have to return either a Future or a Stream of an entity or void. Returning Future<void> comes in handy whenever you want to delete the full content of a table, for instance. Some query method examples can be seen in the following.

@Query('SELECT * FROM Person WHERE id = :id')
Future<Person> findPersonById(int id);

@Query('SELECT * FROM Person WHERE id = :id AND name = :name')
Future<Person> findPersonByIdAndName(int id, String name);

@Query('SELECT * FROM Person')
Future<List<Person>> findAllPersons(); // select multiple items

@Query('SELECT * FROM Person')
Stream<List<Person>> findAllPersonsAsStream(); // stream return

@Query('DELETE FROM Person')
Future<void> deleteAllPersons(); // query without returning an entity

@Query('SELECT * FROM Person WHERE id IN (:ids)')
Future<List<Person>> findPersonsWithIds(List<int> ids); // query with IN clause

Query arguments, when using SQLite's LIKE operator, have to be supplied by the input of a method. It's not possible to define a pattern matching argument like %foo% in the query itself.

// dao
@Query('SELECT * FROM Person WHERE name LIKE :name')
Future<List<Person>> findPersonsWithNamesLike(String name);

// usage
final name = '%foo%';
await dao.findPersonsWithNamesLike(name);

Data Changes #

Use the @insert, @update and @delete annotations for inserting and changing persistent data. All these methods accept single or multiple entity instances.

@insert marks a method as an insertion method. When using the capitalized @Insert you can specify a conflict strategy. Else it just defaults to aborting the insert. These methods can return a Future of either void, int or List<int>.

  • void return nothing
  • int return primary key of inserted item
  • List<int> return primary keys of inserted items

@update marks a method as an update method. When using the capitalized @Update you can specify a conflict strategy. Else it just defaults to aborting the update. These methods can return a Future of either void or int.

  • void return nothing
  • int return number of changed rows

@delete marks a method as a deletion method. These methods can return a Future of either void or int.

  • void return nothing
  • int return number of deleted rows
// examples of changing multiple items with return

@insert
Future<List<int>> insertPersons(List<Person> person);

@update
Future<int> updatePersons(List<Person> person);

@delete
Future<int> deletePersons(List<Person> person);

Streams #

As already mentioned, queries cannot only return values once when called but also continuous streams of query results. The returned streams keep you in sync with the changes happening in the database tables. This feature plays well with the StreamBuilder widget which accepts a stream of values and rebuilds itself whenever there is a new emission.

These methods return broadcast streams and thus, can have multiple listeners.

// definition
@Query('SELECT * FROM Person')
Stream<List<Person>> findAllPersonsAsStream();

// usage
StreamBuilder<List<Person>>(
  stream: dao.findAllPersonsAsStream(),
  builder: (BuildContext context, AsyncSnapshot<List<Person>> snapshot) {
    // do something with the values here
  },
);

Limitations

  • Only methods annotated with @insert, @update and @delete trigger Stream emissions. Inserting data by using the @Query() annotation doesn't.
  • It is now possible to return a Stream if the function queries a database view. But it will fire on any @update, @insert, @delete events in the whole database, which can get quite taxing on the runtime. Please add it only if you know what you are doing! This is mostly due to the complexity of detecting which entities are involved in a database view.
  • Functions returning a stream of single items such as Stream<Person> do not emit when there is no query result.

Transactions #

Whenever you want to perform some operations in a transaction you have to add the @transaction annotation to the method. It's also required to add the async modifier. These methods can only return Future<void>.

@transaction
Future<void> replacePersons(List<Person> persons) async {
  await deleteAllPersons();
  await insertPersons(persons);
}

Inheritance #

Data access object classes support inheritance as shown in the following. There is no limit to inheritance levels and thus, each abstract parent can have another abstract parent. Bear in mind that only abstract classes allow method signatures without an implementation body and thereby, make sure to position your to-be-inherited methods in an abstract class and extend this class with your DAO.

@dao
abstract class PersonDao extends AbstractDao<Person> {
  @Query('SELECT * FROM Person WHERE id = :id')
  Future<Person> findPersonById(int id);
}

abstract class AbstractDao<T> {
  @insert
  Future<void> insertItem(T item);
}

// usage
final person = Person(1, 'Simon');
await personDao.insertItem(person);

final result = await personDao.findPersonById(1);

Migrations #

Whenever you are doing changes to your entities, you're required to also migrate the old data.

First, update your entity. Next, Increase the database version. Define a Migration which specifies a startVersion, an endVersion and a function that executes SQL to migrate the data. At last, use addMigrations() on the obtained database builder to add migrations. Don't forget to trigger the code generator again, to create the code for handling the new entity.

// update entity with new 'nickname' field
@Entity(tableName: 'person')
class Person {
  @PrimaryKey(autoGenerate: true)
  final int id;

  @ColumnInfo(name: 'custom_name', nullable: false)
  final String name;

  final String nickname;

  Person(this.id, this.name, this.nickname);
}

// bump up database version
@Database(version: 2)
abstract class AppDatabase extends FloorDatabase {
  PersonDao get personDao;
}

// create migration
final migration1to2 = Migration(1, 2, (database) async {
  await database.execute('ALTER TABLE person ADD COLUMN nickname TEXT');
});

final database = await $FloorAppDatabase
    .databaseBuilder('app_database.db')
    .addMigrations([migration1to2])
    .build();

In-Memory Database #

To instantiate an in-memory database, use the static inMemoryDatabaseBuilder() method of the generated $FloorAppDatabase class instead of databaseBuilder().

final database = await $FloorAppDatabase.inMemoryDatabaseBuilder().build();

Initialization Callback #

In order to hook into Floor's database initialization process, Callback should be used. It allows the invocation of three separate callbacks which are triggered when the database has been

  • initialized for the first time (onCreate).
  • opened (onOpen).
  • upgraded (onUpgrade).

Each callback is optional.

Their usage can be seen in the following snippet.

final callback = Callback(
   onCreate: (database, version) { /* database has been created */ },
   onOpen: (database) { /* database has been opened */ },
   onUpgrade: (database, startVersion, endVersion) { /* database has been upgraded */ },
);

final database = await $FloorAppDatabase
    .databaseBuilder('app_database.db')
    .addCallback(callback)
    .build();

Platform Support #

Floor supports iOS, Android, Linux, macOS and Windows. The SQLite database access on iOS and Android is provided by sqflite whereas Linux, macOS and Windows use sqflite's ffi implementation.

There currently is no support for Flutter for web.

Testing #

Simply instantiate an in-memory database and run the database tests on your local development machine as shown in the following snippet. For more test references, check out the project's tests.

In case you're running Linux, make sure to have sqlite3 and libsqlite3-dev installed.

import 'package:floor/floor.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

// your imports follow here
import 'dao/person_dao.dart';
import 'database.dart';
import 'entity/person.dart';

void main() {
  group('database tests', () {
    TestDatabase database;
    PersonDao personDao;

    setUp(() async {
      database = await $FloorTestDatabase
          .inMemoryDatabaseBuilder()
          .build();
      personDao = database.personDao;
    });

    tearDown(() async {
      await database.close();
    });

    test('find person by id', () async {
      final person = Person(1, 'Simon');
      await personDao.insertPerson(person);

      final actual = await personDao.findPersonById(person.id);

      expect(actual, equals(person));
    });
  }
}

Examples #

For further examples take a look at the example and test directories.

Naming #

The library's name derives from the following. Floor as the bottom layer of a Room which points to the analogy of the database layer being the bottom and foundation layer of most applications. Where fl also gives a pointer that the library is used in the Flutter context.

Bugs and Feedback #

For bugs, questions and discussions please use Github Issues. For general communication use floor's Slack.

License #

Copyright 2019 Vitus Ortner

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
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The typesafe, reactive and lightweight SQLite abstraction for your Flutter applications. This library is the runtime dependency.

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Uploader

vitusortner.dev@gmail.com

License

Apache 2.0 (LICENSE)

Dependencies

floor_annotation, flutter, meta, path, sqflite, sqflite_common_ffi

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