codemod 1.0.1
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Write and run automated code modifications on a codebase. Primarily geared towards updating and refactoring Dart code, but can modify any files.

codemod for Dart #

Pub Dart CI

A library that makes it easy to write and run automated code modifications on a codebase. Primarily geared towards updating/refactoring Dart code by leveraging the analyzer package's APIs for parsing and traversing the AST.

Inspired by and based on Facebook's codemod library.

Demo #

demo

How It Works #

The end goal of this library is to enable you to easily and automatically apply code modifications and refactors via an interactive CLI. To that end, the following function is provided:

Future<int> runInteractiveCodemod(Iterable<File> files, Suggestor suggestor);

Calling this will tell codemod run the suggestor on each file in files. For each file, the suggestor will return a stream of patches that should be suggested to the user. As patches are suggested and accepted by the user, codemod handles applying them to the files and writing the result to disk.

Writing a Suggestor #

typedef Suggestor = Stream<Patch> Function(FileContext context);

Suggestor is just a typedef, so any function with that signature or class that overrides call() with that signature will work.

Codemod creates the FileContext instance for each file path it is given and passes it to the suggestor; it is just a helper class with methods for reading the file's contents and analyzing it with package:analyzer.

The context can be used to get the file's contents (context.sourceText), a SourceFile representation (context.sourceFile) for easily referencing spans of text within the file, or, for Dart files, the analyzed formats like the CompilationUnit (unresolved or resolved) or the fully resolved LibraryElement.

Suggestor Example: Insert License Headers #

The following suggestor checks each file for the expected license header, and if missing, yields a Patch that inserts it at the beginning of the file.

import 'package:codemod/codemod.dart';
import 'package:source_span/source_span.dart';

final String licenseHeader = '''
// Lorem ispum license.
// 2018-2019
''';

Stream<Patch> licenseHeaderInserter(FileContext context) async* {
  // Skip if license header already exists.
  if (context.sourceText.trimLeft().startsWith(licenseHeader)) return;

  yield Patch(
    // Text to insert.
    licenseHeader,
    // Start offset.
    // 0 means "insert at the beginning of the file."
    0,
    // End offset.
    // Using the same offset as the start offset here means that the patch
    // is being inserted at this point instead of replacing a span of text.
    0,
  );
}

Suggestor Example: Regex Substitution #

Regex substitutions are also a common strategy for codemods and are sufficient for simple changes. The following suggestor updates a version constraint for the codemod package in a pubspec.yaml:

import 'package:codemod/codemod.dart';
import 'package:source_span/source_span.dart';

/// Pattern that matches a dependency version constraint line for the `codemod`
/// package, with the first capture group being the constraint.
final RegExp pattern = RegExp(
  r'''^\s*codemod:\s*([\d\s"'<>=^.]+)\s*$''',
  multiLine: true,
);

/// The version constraint that `codemod` entries should be updated to.
const String targetConstraint = '^1.0.0';

Stream<Patch> regexSubstituter(FileContext context) async* {
  for (final match in pattern.allMatches(context.sourceText)) {
    final line = match.group(0);
    final constraint = match.group(1);
    final updated = line.replaceFirst(constraint, targetConstraint) + '\n';

    yield Patch(updated, match.start, match.end);
  }
}

Suggestor Example: AST Visitor #

Regexes and custom parsing can get you pretty far, but using the analyzer's visitor pattern to traverse the parsed AST is a much more robust option and allows for the creation of very powerful codemods with relatively little effort.

Consider the following suggestor that removes all deprecated declarations (i.e. classes, constructors, variables, methods, etc.):

import 'package:analyzer/analyzer.dart';
import 'package:codemod/codemod.dart';

class DeprecatedRemover extends GeneralizingAstVisitor<void>
    with AstVisitingSuggestor {
  static bool isDeprecated(AnnotatedNode node) =>
      node.metadata.any((m) => m.name.name.toLowerCase() == 'deprecated');

  @override
  void visitDeclaration(Declaration node) {
    if (isDeprecated(node)) {
      // Remove the node by replacing the span from its start offset to its end
      // offset with an empty string.
      yieldPatch('', node.offset, node.end);
    }
  }
}

In this example, the suggestor extends the GeneralizingAstVisitor which allows it to target all nodes that could be deprecated with a single visit method. Then it's just a matter of checking for either the @Deprecated() or @deprecated() annotation and yielding a patch with an empty string across the entire node, which is effectively a deletion.

You may notice that in this example, the suggestor is no longer implementing generatePatches() – instead, we use AstVisitingSuggestor. This mixin handles obtaining the CompilationUnit for the given file and starting the visitor pattern so that all you have to do is override the applicable visit methods.

Although the GeneralizingAstVisitor was the appropriate choice for this suggestor, any AstVisitor will work. Choose whichever one fits the job.

Note that by default AstVisitingSuggestor operates on a Dart file's unresolved AST, but you can override shouldResolveAst() to tell the mixin to resolve the AST:

class ExampleSuggestor extends GeneralizingAstVisitor
    with AstVisitingSuggestor {
  @override
  bool shouldResolveAst(FileContext context) => true;

  ...
}

If you're not familiar with the analyzer API, in particular the AstNode class hierarchy and the AstVisitor pattern, it may be a good opportunity to browse the analyzer source code or look at the AST visiting suggestor codemods that are linked below in the references section to see what is possible with this approach.

Running a Codemod #

All you need to run a codemod is:

  1. A set of files to be read.

    You can create this Iterable<String> input however you like. An easy option is to use Glob from package:glob with the filePathsFromGlob() util method from this package. Globs make it easy to query for files recursively, and filePathsFromGlob() will filter out hidden files by default:

     filePathsFromGlob(Glob('**.dart', recursive: true))
    
  2. A Suggestor to suggest patches on each file.

  3. A .dart file with a main() block that calls runInteractiveCodemod().

If we were to run the 3 suggestor examples from above, it would like like so:

Regex Substituter:

import 'dart:io';
import 'package:codemod/codemod.dart';

void main(List<String> args) async {
  exitCode = await runInteractiveCodemod(
    ['pubspec.yaml'],
    regexSubstituter,
    args: args,
  );
}

License Header Inserter:

import 'dart:io';

import 'package:codemod/codemod.dart';
import 'package:glob/glob.dart';

void main(List<String> args) async {
  exitCode = await runInteractiveCodemod(
    filePathsFromGlob(Glob('**.dart', recursive: true)),
    licenseHeaderInserter,
    args: args,
  );
}

Deprecated Remover:

import 'dart:io';

import 'package:codemod/codemod.dart';
import 'package:glob/glob.dart';

void main(List<String> args) async {
  exitCode = await runInteractiveCodemod(
    filePathsFromGlob(Glob('**.dart', recursive: true)),
    DeprecatedRemover(),
    args: args,
  );
}

Run the .dart file directly or package it up as an executable and publish it to pub!

Additional Options #

To facilitate the creation of more complex codemods, two additional pieces are provided by this library:

  • Aggregate multiple suggestors into a single suggestor with aggregate():

      import 'dart:io';
    
      import 'package:codemod/codemod.dart';
    
      void main(List<String> args) async {
        exitCode = await runInteractiveCodemod(
          [...], // input files
          aggregate([
            suggestorA,
            suggestorB,
          ]),
        );
      }
    
  • Run multiple suggestors (or aggregate suggestors) sequentially:

      import 'dart:io';
    
      import 'package:codemod/codemod.dart';
    
      void main(List<String> args) async {
        exitCode = await runInteractiveCodemodSequence(
          [...], // input files
          [
            phaseOneSuggestor,
            phaseTwoSuggestor,
          ],
          args: args,
        );
      }
    

    This can be useful if a certain modification needs to happen prior to another, or if you need to use a "collector" pattern wherein the first suggestor collects information from the files that a second suggestor will then use to suggest patches.

Testing Suggestors #

Testing suggestors is relatively easy for two reasons:

  • The API surface area is small (most of the time you only need to test the suggestor function).

  • The stream of patches returned by a suggestor can be applied to the source file to obtain a String output, which can easily be compared against an expected output.

In other words, all you need to do is determine a sufficient set of inputs and their respective expected outputs.

To help out, the package:codemod/test.dart library exports a few functions. These two should be sufficient for writing most suggestor tests:

  • fileContextForTest(name, contents) for creating a FileContext that can be used as the input for Suggestor.generatePatches()
  • expectSuggestorGeneratesPatches(suggestor, context, resultMatcher) for asserting that a suggestor produces the expected result for a given input

If, however, you need to examine the generated patches more closely, you can call a suggestor yourself and then use the applyPatches(sourceFile, patches) function to get the resulting output.

Let's use the DeprecatedRemover suggestor example from above to demonstrate testing:

import 'package:codemod/codemod.dart';
import 'package:source_span/source_span.dart';
import 'package:test/test.dart';

void main() {
  group('DeprecatedRemover', () {
    test('removes deprecated variable', () async {
      final context = await fileContextForTest('test.dart', '''
// Not deprecated.
var foo = 'foo';
@deprecated
var bar = 'bar';''');
      final expectedOutput = '''
// Not deprecated.
var foo = 'foo';
''';
      expectSuggestorGeneratesPatches(
          DeprecatedRemover(), context, expectedOutput);
    });
  });
}

References #

Credits #


Contributing #

  • Run tests: dart test

  • Format code: dart format

  • Run static analysis: dart analyze

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Publisher

workiva.com

Write and run automated code modifications on a codebase. Primarily geared towards updating and refactoring Dart code, but can modify any files.

Repository (GitHub)
View/report issues

Documentation

API reference

License

Apache 2.0 (LICENSE)

Dependencies

analyzer, args, glob, io, logging, path, quiver, source_span, stack_trace, test, test_descriptor

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