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A BDD-style widget testing library. Generates Flutter widget tests from *.feature files.

bdd_widget_test Build Status Coverage Status pub package #

A BDD-style widget testing library

Why? #

Isn't it cool to develop mobile apps in natural language? A language each of your team members can read and understand so that it involves everyone working on the project productively. While Dart is on its way to this goal, for tests there is a language for that! It's called Gherkin.

The aim of this library is in combining two effective and easy-to-use techniques: BDD(Gherkin) and widget testing.

Getting Started #

Add the dependency #

Add build_runner and bdd_widget_test dependencies to dev_dependencies section of the pubspec.yaml file.

dev_dependencies:
  build_runner:
  bdd_widget_test: <put the latest version here>
  ...

You may get the actual version from installation instructions on Pub site.

Write features #

Create *.feature file inside test folder. Let's say you're testing the default Flutter counter app, the content might be:

Feature: Counter
    Scenario: Initial counter value is 0
        Given the app is running
        Then I see {'0'} text

Now ask built_value to generate Dart files for you. You may do this with the command:

flutter packages pub run build_runner watch --delete-conflicting-outputs

After that, the corresponding dart file will be generated for each of your feature files. Do not change the code inside these dart files as they will be recreated each time you change something in feature files.

During feature-to-dart generation additional step folder will be created. It will contain all steps required to run the scenario. These files will not be updated hence feel free to adapt the content according to your needs.

Run tests #

You're good to go! bdd_widget_test generated plain old Dart tests, so feel free to run you tests within your IDE or using the following command

flutter test

Feature file syntax #

Feature file sample:

# comment here

Feature: Counter

  Background:
    Given the answer is {42}

  After:
    Then clean up after the test

  Scenario: Initial counter value is 0
    Given the app is running
    Then I see {'0'} text

  Scenario: Plus button increases the counter
    Given the app is running
    When I tap {Icons.add} icon
    Then I see {'1'} text

Backround and After sections are optional. A Background allows you to add some context to the scenarios that follow it. It can contain one or more Given steps, which are run before each scenario. An After scenarion run even if a test fails, to ensure that it has a chance to clean up after itself. Most probably you don't need to use this keyword.

Each feature file must have one or more Feature:s. Features become test groups in Flutter tests.

Each feature group must have one or more Scenario:s (or Example:s). Scenario become widget tests.

Each scenario must have one or more lines with steps. Each of them must start with Given, When, Then, And, or But keywords. Conventionally Given steps are used for test arrangements, When — for interaction, Then — for asserts. Keywords are not taken into account when looking for a step definition. You can have as many steps as you like, but it's recommended you keep the number at 3-5 per scenario. Having too many steps will cause it to lose it’s expressive power as specification and documentation.

The Scenario Outline keyword can be used to run the same Scenario multiple times, with different combinations of values.

A Scenario Outline must contain an Examples (or Scenarios) section. Its steps are interpreted as a template which is never directly run. Instead, the Scenario Outline is run once for each row in the Examples section beneath it (not counting the first header row).

The steps can use <> delimited parameters that reference headers in the examples table. The plugin will replace these parameters with values from the table before it tries to match the step against a step definition.

Scenario Outline example:

Feature: Sample

  Scenario Outline: Plus button increases the counter
    Given the app is running
    When I tap {Icons.add} icon <times> times
    Then I see <result> text

    Examples:
    | times | result |
    |    0  |   '0'  |
    |    1  |   '1'  |
    |   42  |  '42'  |

If you need to have the same step but with different parameters, you may use a DataTable-like syntax:

Feature: Sample

  Scenario: An answer
    Given the app is running
    When I enter <input> text into <field> text field
    | input      | field |
    | '42'       |   0  |
    | 'question' |   1  |
    Then I see {'Do not forget your towel!'} text

The above is equivalent to:

Feature: Sample

  Scenario: An answer
    Given the app is running
    When I enter {'42'} text into {0} text field
    And I enter {'question'} text into {1} text field
    Then I see {'Do not forget your towel!'} text

While the DataTable-like syntax is a good practice for scenarios that require repeated steps, for example, entering text in different fields, sometimes we want to prepare test data in a readable way and mock our scneario's prerequisites and assert the expected result in an explicit domain driven way. To handle this, we create a data table:

Feature: Search songs

  Scenario: Searched text matches a song's details
    Given available songs
    | 'artist'      | 'name'                      |
    | 'The Doors'   | 'Riders on the storm'       |
    | 'Bob Dylan'   | "Knockin' On Heaven's Door" |
    | 'The Beatles' | 'Here Comes the Sun'        |
    When I search for text {'door'}
    Then I see songs
    | 'artist'      | 'name'                      |
    | 'The Doors'   | 'Riders on the storm'       |
    | 'Bob Dylan'   | "Knockin' On Heaven's Door" |

For each of the above step lines that are followed by a table, in the related generate step file, the created function will have an object parameter of type DataTable:

import 'package:bdd_widget_test/data_table.dart' as bdd;
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

/// Usage: Given available songs
Future<void> availableSongs(WidgetTester tester, bdd.DataTable dataTable) async {
  throw UnimplementedError();
}

Use the DataTable parameter to get access to the data:

final dataAsList = dataTable.asLists(); // [['artist', 'name'], ['The Doors', 'Riders on the storm'], ...]
final dataAsMaps = dataTable.asMaps(); // [{'artist: 'The Doors', 'name: 'Riders on the storm'}, ...]

Tags #

Tags are used to filter scenarios in the test runner. Here are some examples:

@slow
@integration
Feature: Sample

  @important
  Scenario: An answer
    Given the app is running

Here we mark the test as slow, integration, and important.

To run tests that are marked with @important tag, you can use the following command:

flutter test --tags important

To exclude tests that are marked with @slow tag, you can use the following command:

flutter test --exclude-tags slow

Predefined steps #

This library comes with a list of predefined steps. They will be auto-generated for you, but you may want to adjust their implementation according to your needs.

List of predefined steps:

  • I dismiss the page
  • I don't see {..} icon
  • I don't see {..} rich text
  • I don't see {..} text
  • I don't see {..} widget
  • I enter {..} into {..} input field
  • I see disabled elevated button
  • I see enabled elevated button
  • I see exactly {..} {..} widgets
  • I see {..} icon
  • I see multiple {..} texts
  • I see multiple {..} widgets
  • I see {..} rich text
  • I see {..} text
  • I tap {..} icon
  • I tap {..} text
  • The app is running

If you want to use predefined steps without having them in your steps folder then you may create a build.yaml file in the root of your project with the following content (see the example folder):

targets:
  $default:
    builders:
      bdd_widget_test|featureBuilder:
        options:
          externalSteps:
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_see_text.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_dont_see_text.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_see_multiple_texts.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_tap_text.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_see_icon.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_dont_see_icon.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_tap_icon.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_see_rich_text.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_dont_see_rich_text.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_see_widget.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_dont_see_widget.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_see_exactly_widgets.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_see_multiple_widgets.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_enter_into_input_field.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_see_disabled_elevated_button.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_see_enabled_elevated_button.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_wait.dart
            - package:bdd_widget_test/step/i_dismiss_the_page.dart

That will tell the plugin to reuse steps from the plugin itself and do not put them into your code.

Hooks #

If you want to add hooks, you need to add the addHooks flag to the build.yaml. This will generate a file that allows you to handle a beforeAll, afterAll, beforeEach and afterEach call. These hooks will be generated per directory, just like the steps. Also like with the steps, you can define a directory in the build.yaml to define one set location for the hooks. These hooks will then be used everywhere.

targets:
  $default:
    builders:
      bdd_widget_test|featureBuilder:
        options:
          addHooks: true
          hookFolderName: bdd_hooks

The beforeAll and afterAll do not take any properties, but the beforeEach and afterEach both provide the name and the tags of the feature. On top of this, the afterEach provides whether or not the test was successful.

FAQ #

How to pass a parameter? #

You may use curly brackets to pass the parameter into a step. The syntax is following:

  When I see {42} number
  And I see {Icons.add} icon

Notice, that the value inside brackets is copied to the Dart test file without changes hence it must be a valid Dart code. In the example above first step will have an int value. In order to pass a valid Dart string use '42' or "42".

You may call methods in step parameters, but most probably it's not what you want.

How to add additional imports to test files? #

Most of the time you shouldn't do that, as the BDD tests simulate user's behavior and it's just not possible for users to know the implementation details. Nevertheless, sometimes it might be in hand, i.e. when you have custom domain models or components. For example, if you need to check Cupertino icons in the test, you may have:

import 'package:flutter/cupertino.dart';

Feature: ...
  Then I see {CupertinoIcons.back} cupertino icon

How to adjust linter for auto-generated tests? #

Use the same trick as above, just write linter rules you wish to ignore at the beginning of the feature file:

// ignore_for_file: avoid_as, prefer_is_not_empty

Feature: ...

Any video tutorials on this? #

Sure, you may find a BDD in Flutter playlist on youtube with the basic showcase.

How to test the UI? (golden tests) #

BDD is UI agnostic, the main focus is on the requirements. If you need to test colors and layouts the simplest option would be to combine BDD widget tests with golden_toolkit plugin.

Everything will stay pretty much the same, but you'll need to tell the plugin to name test methods testGoldens instead of testWidgets. There are three ways on how you can do that:

  1. If you have only few golden test scenarios per feature, you may mark them with the testMethodName tag like that:
@testMethodName: testGoldens
Scenario: My golden scenario
  1. For features full of golden tests you may move the testMethodName tag above the Feature declaration like that:
@testMethodName: testGoldens
Feature: My golden feature
  1. If you plan to have golden tests only, you may want to override testMethodName for the whole plugin. For that modify your build.yaml file like that:
targets:
  $default:
    builders:
      bdd_widget_test|featureBuilder:
        options:
          testMethodName: testGoldens

You may refer to a video from BDD in Flutter playlist for a live demo.

How to reuse steps between projects? #

You may reference any step using build.yaml file (see the example folder):

targets:
  $default:
    builders:
      bdd_widget_test|featureBuilder:
        options:
          externalSteps:
            - package:<your_package>/<your_step>.dart

If you have many packages you might want to reuse the whole list of external steps. For that you'll have to create a bdd_options.yaml file in the root folder of your project with the following content:

include: package:bdd_widget_test/bdd_options.yaml # if you want to reuse default steps as well
externalSteps:
  - package:<your_package>/<your_step>.dart

Alternatively, ff you need just to include an external config, use the include option in the build.yaml config:

targets:
  $default:
    builders:
      bdd_widget_test|featureBuilder:
        options:
          include: package:<your_package>/bdd_options.yaml

How to group steps in a single project? #

You may create sub-folders (like common, login, home, etc.) in the step folder and move generated steps there. The plugin is smart enough to find them (see the example folder).

I don't like the step folder name, how can I change it? #

By setting the stepFolderName parameter with any name you like in the build.yaml file (see the example folder):

targets:
  $default:
    builders:
      bdd_widget_test|featureBuilder:
        options:
          stepFolderName: bdd_steps

That will tell the plugin to create a bdd_steps folder under test (instead of step near each feature) and put all the steps there.

You may set a relative path here (like ../../bdd_steps), just be sure that the target folder is still somewhere under the test folder.

How to write integration tests? #

  1. Add integration_test dependency to the pubspec.yaml file:
dev_dependencies:
  integration_test:
    sdk: flutter
  1. Modify build.yaml file to support code generation in the integration_test folder like that (here is the full sample):
targets:
  $default:
    sources:
      - integration_test/**   # By default, build runner will not generate code in the integration folder
      - test/**               # so we override paths for code generation here
      - lib/**
      - $package$
  1. (Optional) If you plan to re-use steps between integration and widget tests set a common step folder in the build.yaml file like that (here is the full sample):
stepFolderName: step
  1. Done. Now you may create feature files in integration_test folder. You may want to review the official documentation for instructions on how to run integration tests.

Patrol tests #

Patrol is a popular testing framework for Flutter. It provides a possibility to control native UI from the Dart code, and also provides a new custom finder that simplifies the development process of the widget tests. You may use Patrol together with bdd_widget_test to get the best from both worlds.

Here is an example of a BDD scenario with Patrol framework:

import 'package:patrol/patrol.dart';

@testMethodName: patrolTest
@testerName: $
@testerType: PatrolIntegrationTester
Feature: Counter
    
    Background:
        Given the app is running
    
    Scenario: Initial counter value is 0
        Then I see {'0'} text

    @scenarioParams: nativeAutomation: true
    Scenario: Add button increments the counter
        When I tap {Icons.add} icon
        Then I see {'1'} text

Notice how the second scenario is annotated with nativeAutomation enabling you to control native UI elements. Setting the tester type to PatrolIntegrationTester allows you to use the power of the custom finder introduced by Patrol.

To streamline your testing setup, you can conveniently configure key parameters in the build.yaml file if you plan to use Patrol in all your tests:

targets:
  $default:
    builders:
      bdd_widget_test|featureBuilder:
        options:
          testMethodName: patrolTest
          testerName: $
          testerType: PatrolIntegrationTester
          includeIntegrationTestBinding: false

Since Patrol version 3.0.0, IntegrationTestWidgetsFlutterBinding.ensureInitialized must not be called. Set includeIntegrationTestBinding to false.

Contributing #

If you find a bug or would like to request a new feature, just open an issue. Your contributions are always welcome!

License #

bdd_widget_test is released under a MIT License. See LICENSE for details.

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A BDD-style widget testing library. Generates Flutter widget tests from *.feature files.

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Documentation

API reference

License

MIT (license)

Dependencies

build, build_config, characters, collection, dart_style, diacritic, file, flutter, flutter_test, meta, path, yaml

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