Push is a flutter package designed to handle push notifications - including background notification, alert notifications and notification taps. Users can avoid using Firebase on all platforms except Android - for example, on iOS, they can use APNs directly. In most cases, you should use Flutterfire's Firebase Messaging package. The only case you should use Push is if you do not / cannot use FCM on iOS. For example, Ably and OneSignal do not use FCM on iOS. This package allows you to handle push notifications regardless of the platform specific services. However, this results in a "lowest common denominator" API: you can't expect to receive FCM message IDs or senders, as some platforms do not use FCM, so don't have FCM message IDs or "sender" fields.

  • Look at the features if you want to see if push will provide it.
  • Look at comparisons if you want to compare Push with other push notification packages for Flutter.

Updating to v2

There are some breaking changes in version 2.0.0. Please see the breaking changes for how to update your application.


  • Use push notification without Firebase on any platform except Android.
  • Get started testing push notifications quickly with the scripts, tools and commands provided in this project.
  • Consistent behaviour between iOS and Android.
  • It currently only supported iOS and Android.
  • Avoids using deprecated Android classes.
  • Receive push notifications when the app is in the foreground, background or terminated on Android and iOS.
  • Request permission to show notifications to the user, on iOS and Android (including Android 13+).
  • Handle notifications being tapped by users.
  • Set your message handlers anywhere you want, however you want. Unlike other packages, these restrictions do not apply:
    • It must not be an anonymous function
    • It must be a top-level function (e.g. not a class method which requires initialization)
    • Since the handler runs in its own isolate outside your applications context, it is not possible to update application state or execute any UI impacting logic. You can however perform logic such as HTTP requests, IO operations (updating local storage), communicate with other plugins etc.
  • This project uses semantic versioning.
  • This package is federated. You (or an organisation) can implement push services for new platforms (Fuchsia, Linux) which may not already provide a mechanism for pushing data to devices from servers.


Do you want another comparison - or just an improvement of existing explanations? Create an issue with your request.


  • You must use firebase_messaging, even on iOS.
    • There might be increased latency, as messages need to go from your server, to FCM, then to APNs (extra step), and finally to the user's device.
    • If Firebase Messaging servers goes down (unlikely), your notifications will stop working on iOS too.
  • It uses a deprecated Android component (JobIntentService) which is a service which runs at all times, listening for messages even when no messages are arriving to the device. Android is deprecating this class and pushing developers away from the paradigm of keeping services running constantly. Following the documentation, they should dispatch jobs using JobScheduler.enqueue instead. In this case, each job would be a new push notification. Therefore, their changes will result in the same performance as push.


  • This package may be "dead" now. See the relevant issue.
  • It doesn't support background notifications.
  • Fundamentally, it is flawed because of it's pubspec.yaml: it depends on firebase_messaging, which means you have to use Firebase on iOS too. This is because the firebase messaging flutter package depends on Firebase Messaging iOS SDK, which swizzles methods and doesn't expect work with other push notification SDKs.
  • It is outdated: it doesn't support iOS 15 APIs, or even provisional notifications.
  • Unfortunately, the latest versions of flutter_apns depend directly on firebase_messaging, leading to the same issues as using firebase_messaging directly.


  • You may try to use this, and it might work for iOS, but then how do you implement the Android side? You would have to install firebase_messaging, which would break this package.


  • This only works on Android, but not on iOS because it sets up it's own connection instead of using FCM/APNs. UnifiedPush has no plans to support iOS, due to the limitations of iOS.
  • It relies on a foreground service and therefore a persistent notification. This persistent notification is present in the status bar and in notification drawer, and cannot be swiped away. It is unrealistic to use on stock Android since users would wonder why certain apps show notifications continuously. Currently, UnifiedPush is probably better for alternative-based operating systems like LineageOS and designed for more tech-savvy users.

Getting started

To run the example app, you should:

  • Clone the project
  • Open the push package ($repo_folder/push) in Android Studio or Visual Studio Code, not the root folder.
  • Download dependencies: flutter pub get
  • Create and open a Firebase project
    • Add an Android application with the applicationId: uk.orth.push.example
    • Download the google-services.json and place it in push/android/app
    • Run the example app
  • Get the FCM registration token from the app
    • This is the token which you can use to send messages to this device from your server
    • The FCM registration token is printed in the example app, but you can also share the token with another app (e.g. Google Keep)
  • Send messages to the device by using it's FCM registration token, through Firebase Admin SDK.

To install this package into your own application, you should:


Warning: Setting up push notifications is more difficult than most features, because:

  • we don't have control over the push notification servers (when the message is pushed to your app)
  • after the device receives the push notification from the server, we don't have control over when the OS delivers push notifications to our app


  • Set up your firebase project, add your Android app to the Firebase project (using the applicationId defined in your build.gradle), and follow the steps in the Firebase web console. Either:
    • New approach, for projects created after Flutter 3.16 or migrated with Deprecated imperative apply of Flutter's Gradle plugins:
    • Legacy approach:
      • download the google-services.json into the android/app/ folder.
      • Modify your Android project to include the following 2 lines - you can check exactly where this needs to go by looking at the example app:
        • Add apply plugin: 'com.google.gms.google-services' to your app's android/app/build.gradle.
        • Add classpath 'com.google.gms:google-services:4.3.10' to your app's android/build.gradle.
  • Add push to your pubspec.yaml
  • Download/update dependencies by running flutter pub get
  • Warning: Apps that are force quit on Android will not handle push notifications due to Android restrictions. You might get an error: broadcast intent callback: result=CANCELLED forIntent { act=com.google.android.c2dm.intent.RECEIVE flg=pkg=uk.orth.push.example (has extras) }.
  • Flutter applications with custom Android code (native code defined in MainActivity):
    • Push manually launches your Flutter application in response to a push notification being sent to your app when it is not yet running.
    • In this case, code defined in MainActivity won't run when your Flutter application
    • This may prevent your Flutter application from initializing successfully when push notifications are received when the app is terminated
    • You should instead move the custom code out of your MainActivity, into a new custom, Application class. For example, a ExampleApplication.kt would look like:
package com.example.push_example

import io.flutter.app.FlutterApplication

class ExampleApplication : FlutterApplication() {
    override fun onCreate() {
        // Run custom native code for your Android application


  • Pre-requisite: you need an Apple Developer Program membership - $99 a year.
  • Warning: APNs does not work on iOS simulators, so you won't be able to test if push notifications or use this package. Push Notifications now work on iOS simulators.
  • Warning: Apps that are force quit on iOS will not handle push notifications due to iOS limitations. Even apps that are force quit on iOS can receive push notifications now.
  • Create a push notifications key on your apple developer account's Certificates, Identifiers & Profiles page.


Warning: In the specific case where your Android app is in the terminated state and a push notification is received, any side effects caused by your handlers must complete before the completing the handler. This is because the Flutter application may be terminated as soon as the Future of the handler completes.

4 concepts:

  • Request permission if you need to show notifications to the user (you don't need to do this on Android 12 and older - it will succeed immediately.)
  • Notifications are shown to the user automatically
    • Notifications which contain a title and a body are shown to the user when the app is in the background or terminated state.
    • Notifications are not shown to the user when the app is in the foreground. If you want to show the user a notification, you should send a background notification to your app, and create a local notification.
  • You can handle the notifications in your Flutter app
    • when the app is in the foreground
    • when the app is in the background
  • You can handle notification taps

All of this is shown in the following 2 snippets:

      // Request permission to show notifications. Only do this in a meaningful place 
      // For example, users have subscribed to a news feed, preferably not when they first install/launch the app. 
      final isGranted = await Push.instance.requestPermission();


      // To be informed that the device's token has been updated by the operating system
      // You should update your servers with this token
      Push.instance.onNewToken.listen((token) {
        print("Just got a new FCM registration token: ${token}");

      // Handle notification launching app from terminated state
      Push.instance.notificationTapWhichLaunchedAppFromTerminated.then((data) {
        if (data == null) {
          print("App was not launched by tapping a notification");
        } else {
          print('Notification tap launched app from terminated state:\n'
              'RemoteMessage: ${remoteMessage} \n');
        notificationWhichLaunchedApp.value = data;

      // Handle notification taps
      Push.instance.onNotificationTap.listen((data) {
        print('Notification was tapped:\n'
            'Data: ${data} \n');
        tappedNotificationPayloads.value += [data];

      // Handle push notifications
      Push.instance.addOnMessage((message) {
        print('RemoteMessage received while app is in foreground:\n'
            'RemoteMessage.Notification: ${message.notification} \n'
            ' title: ${message.notification?.title.toString()}\n'
            ' body: ${message.notification?.body.toString()}\n'
            'RemoteMessage.Data: ${message.data}');
        messagesReceived.value += [message];

      // Handle push notifications
      Push.instance.addOnBackgroundMessage((message) {
        print('RemoteMessage received while app is in background:\n'
            'RemoteMessage.Notification: ${message.notification} \n'
            ' title: ${message.notification?.title.toString()}\n'
            ' body: ${message.notification?.body.toString()}\n'
            'RemoteMessage.Data: ${message.data}');
        backgroundMessagesReceived.value += [message];
  • When using a StatefulWidget, you should store each stream you listen to (listen()) in your state. You should listen to these streams in initState, and cancel() them in dispose.

Manual testing and debugging

Take a look at the tools/ folder in the GitHub repository. It contains links to resources and tools to help you debug quickly.


Push allows you to set your message handlers anywhere you want, and however you want. Push sends the push notification to your app, not a separate isolate with it's own context. This is more convenient. Other packages impose some restrictions due to their architecture:

When can you receive push notifications


The app is shown on the user's screen.


The app is not shown on the user's screen, but it is running in the background.

  • You can check if your app process is running by running the command watch -n 1 'adb shell ps -A | grep com.example.app_name', and ensuring a process is shown.


The app process is not running at all.

  • You can check if your app process is running by running the command watch -n 1 'adb shell ps -A | grep com.example.app_name', and ensuring nothing shows up.
  • You can close the process by ensuring the app is in the foreground, and running adb shell am kill com.example.app_name. Warning: Do not use adb shell am force-stop com.example.app_name because this will prevent further push notifications from being delivered to the app, until the app is manually launched by the user.

These notifications are sent to the same handler as background messages. It may come in handy to understand the difference between them though.

Handling push notifications

Handling notification taps

On Android, notification taps are only sent back to you when your RemoteMessage contains data. Therefore, you cannot test this by sending a message from the Firebase notification composer. This is because the RemoteMessage in the intent extras which is passed simply does not include the notification .


To ensure your push notifications are successfully received, follow this checklist.

Does your MainActivity implement any custom code?

If you have logic in your MainActivity, this does not run when Push launches your application. To make sure that your native logic is executed even when your activity is not launched, consider adding your logic to a FlutterApplication instead of FlutterActivity. Conceptually, it makes sense that your Flutter application configuration is done whenever your application launches, not just when a UI is shown (FlutterActivity).

Are you implementing your own FirebaseMessagingService

If you are implementing your own FirebaseMessagingService or using another package which does ( e.g. firebase_messaging), be sure to call PushPlugin.onNewToken(this, registrationToken) in your FirebaseMessaging#onNewToken override. For example:

override fun onNewToken(registrationToken: String) {
    PushPlugin.onNewToken(this, registrationToken)

Why federated?

You can provide a custom implementation for a specific platform by releasing your own package which implements the interface provided by push_platform_interface. Even if your package is not endorsed in push, other users of this package can use your implementation by modifying their pubspec.yaml.


The architecture of this package is inspired by the work I did in ably_flutter related to push notifications. However, this package is a complete rewrite, containing a simpler architecture and uses modern languages (Swift, Kotlin) and modern tools (e.g. Pigeon (Dart codegenerator).


To provide feedback, contribute features, bug fixes, documentation, or anything else to this project, read CONTRIBUTING.md.