Money2

This is a Dart implementation of Money and Currency classes

Overview

Money2 is a fork of LitGroup's Money package.

The aim of this fork is to improve the documentation and introduce a number of convenience methods to make it easier to work with Money. This package also changes some of the naming convention to provide a (hopefully) more intuiative api.

The Money class stores the underlying values using a BigInt. The value is stored using the currencies 'minor' units (e.g. cents). This allows for precise calculations as required when handling money.

Currency usdCurrency = Currency.create('USD', 2);

// Create money from an int.
Money costPrice = Money.fromInt(1000, usdCurrency);
print(costPrice.toString());
> $10.00

final taxInclusive = costPrice * 1.1;
print(taxInclusive.toString())
 > $11.00

 print(taxInclusive.format("SCC #.00"));
 > $US 11.00

// Create money from an String using the `Currency` instance.
 Money parsed = usdCurrency.parse("\$10.00");
 print(parsed.format("SCCC 0.0"));
 > $USD 10.00

 // Create money from an int which contains the MajorUnit (e.g dollars)
 Money buyPrice = Money.from(10);
 print(buyPrice.toString());
  > $10.00

 // Create money from a double which contains Major and Minor units (e.g. dollars and cents)
 // We don't recommend transporting money as a double as you will get rounding errors.
 Money sellPrice = Money.from(10.50);
 print(sellPrice.toString());
  > $10.50

The package use the following terms:

  • Minor Units - the smallest unit of a currency e.g. cents.
  • Major Units - the integer component of a currency - e.g. dollars
  • code - the currency code. e.g. USD
  • symbol - the currency symbol. e.g. '$'. It should be noted that not every currency has a symbol.
  • pattern - a pattern used to control parsing and the display format.
  • minorDigits - the number of minor Units (e.g. cents) which should be used when storing the currency.
  • decimal separator - the character that separates the fraction part from the integer of a number e.g. '10.99'. This defaults to '.' but can be changed to ','
  • thousands separator - the character that is used to format thousands (e.g. 100,000). This can be changed to '.'

Creating a Currency

Before you can start creating Money instances you first need a Currency.

The Money2 package does not contain any 'built-in' Currency types. Instead you must create your own Currency instances as required.

Creating a Currency is simple:

// US dollars which have 2 digits after the decimal place.
final usd = Currency.create('USD', 2);

You would normally create a single instance of a Currency and re-use that throughout your code base.

Registering a Currency

To make your life easier we provide the Currencies class which is a factory that allows you to register your currencies and quickly retrieve them from anywhere in your code.

Note: its not required that you register your currency. You can just recreate and use them whenever and where ever you choose.

Currency usd = Currency.create('USD', 2);
Currencies.register(usd);
Currency aud = Currency.create('AUD', 2);
Currencies.register(aud);
Currency euro = Currency.create('EUR', 2, symbol: '€', invertSeparators: true, pattern: "S0.000,00");
Currencies.register(euro);
final Currency jpy = Currency.create('JPY', 0, symbol: '¥', pattern: 'S0');
Currencies.register(jpy);
// find a registred currency.
Currency nowUseIt = Currencies.find('USD');
Money cost = Money.fromInt(1000, nowUseIt);
cost.toString();
> $10.00

Default format

The Currency class also allows you to specify a default format which is used when parsing or formating a Money instance.

Note: if you don't specify a pattern it defaults to "$0.00"

Currency aud = Currency.create('AUD', 2, pattern:"\$0.00");
Money costPrice = Money.fromInt(1099, aud);
costPrice.toString();
> $10.99

final Currency jpy = Currency.create('JPY', 0, symbol: '¥', pattern: 'S0');
Money yenCostPrice = Money.fromInt(1099, jpy);
yenCostPrice.toString();
> ¥1099

Currency euro = Currency.create('EUR', 2, symbol: '€', invertSeparators: true, pattern: "S0.000,00");
Money euroCostPrice = Money.fromInt(899, euro);
euroCostPrice.toString();
> €8,99

Money usdValue = usd.parse("€7,10");
print(euroCostPrice.toString());
> €7,10

Money euroValue = euro.parse("\$2.99");
print(euroValue.toString());
> $2.99

You can also use the Money.format method to define a specific format where required. See details below

Symbols

A number of currency have different symbols, you can specify the symbol when creating the currency.


// Create a currency for Japan's yen with the correct symbol
final jpy = Currency.create('JPY', 0, symbol: '¥');

Separators

Decimal Separator

Numbers use a decimal separator to separate the integer and factional component of a number.

In the english speaking world the period (.) is used as the decimal separator however in large parts of the world the comma (,) is used as the decimal separator.

e.g.

  • $USD1,000.99 (one thousand dollars and 99 cents)

  • €EUR1.000,99 (one thousand euro and 99 cents)

Money2 use the English convention. To switch to the Euro style convention set the invertSeparators argument to true when creating a currency.

You will also need to provide an appropriate pattern.


Currency euro = Currency.create('EUR', 2, symbol: '€', invertSeparators: true, pattern: "S0.000,00");

Thousand Separator

Numbers also use a thousands separator to help format large numbers by placing a separator every few digits. e.g. $100,000.00

In the english speaking world the comma (,) is used as the thousands separator however in large parts of the world the period (.) is used as the thousands separator.

Money2 use the English convention. To switch to the Euro style convention set the invertSeparators argument to true when creating a currency.

You will also need to provide an appropriate pattern.


Currency euro = Currency.create('EUR', 2, symbol: '€', invertSeparators: true, pattern: "S0.000,00");

Creating Money

For you convience we provide a number of methods to create a Money instance.

  • Money.parse - parse a monetary string containing a formatted amount.
  • Money.fromInt - from a minorUnit (e.g. cents)
  • Money.fromBigInt - from a minorUnit
  • Money.from - from a num (int or double)
  • Currency.parse - parse a monetary string assuming the currency
  • Currencies.parse - parse a monetary amount and determine the currency from the embedded currency code.

The Money variants all require you to pass in the Currency. The Currency variant requires on the monetary value. The Currencies varient is able to determine the Currency if the passed string amount contains a currency code.

The two most common methods are:

  • Money.fromInt
  • Currency.parse

Money.parse

Parses a string containing a monetary value.

Money.fromInt is faster if you already have the value represented as an integer.

The simplest variant of Money.parse relies on the default pattern of the passed currency.

final Currency usd = Currency.create('USD', 2);
final Money amount = Money.parse("\$10.25", usd);

You can also pass an explict pattern.

final Currency usd = Currency.create('USD', 2);
final Money amount = Money.parse("\$10.25", usd, 'S0.0');

Currency.parse

The simplest variant of Currency.parse relies on the default pattern of the currency.

final Currency usd = Currency.create('USD', 2);
Money value = usd.parse("\$10.25");

You can also pass an explict pattern.

final Currency usd = Currency.create('USD', 2);
Money value = usd.parse("\$10.25", 'S0.0');

Money.fromInt

Money can be instantiated by providing the amount in the minor units of the currency (e.g. cents):

// Create a currency that normally displays 2 decimal places:
final Currency usd = Currency.create('USD', 2);

*// Current a currency for Japan's yen with the correct symbol (we default to $)
final Currency jpy = Currency.create('JPY', 0, symbol: '¥');


// Create a money value of $5.10 usd from an int
Money fiveDollars = Money.fromInt(510, usd);

// Create a money value of ¥25010 from a big int.
Money bigDollars = Money.fromBigInt(BigInt.from(25010), jpy);

Currencies.parse

This method is extremely useful if you have a database/list of monetary amounts that contain their currency code. 'Currencies.parse' will create a Money instance of the correct currency based on the currency code embedded in the monetary amount.

An exception will be thrown if the monetary amount does not include a currency code.

Before you can use Currencies.parse you must first register the list of Currencys that you need to support.

If you try to create a Money instance for an unregistered Currency an UknownCurrencyException will be thrown.

final Currency usd = Currency.create('USD', 2);
final Currency jpy = Currency.create('JPY', 0, symbol: '¥');

Currencies.register(usd);
Currencies.register(jpy);

Money usdAmount = Currencies.parse("\$USD10.25", "SCCC0.0");
Money jpyAmount = Currencies.parse("JPY100", "CCC0");

Formatting

The money class provides a simple way of formatting currency using a pattern.

When you create a Currency instance you can provide a default format pattern which is used to format a Money instance when you call Money.toString().

In some cases you may however want to format a Money instances in a specific manner. In this case you can use:


Money.format(String pattern);

Formatting Patterns

Note: these are the same patterns used when parsing a monetary value using one of the parse methods.

The supported pattern characters are:

 * S outputs the currencies symbol e.g. $.
 * C outputs part of the currency code e.g. USD. You can specify 1,2 or 3 C's. Specifying CCC will output the full code regardless of its length.
     * C - U
     * CC - US
     * CCC - USD - outputs the full currency code regardless of length.
 * # denotes a digit.
 * 0 denotes a digit and with the addition of defining leading and trailing zeros.
 * , (comma) a placeholder for the grouping separtor
 * . (period) a place holder fo rthe decimal separator 
 

Examples:

final Currency usd = Currency.create('USD', 2);
Money lowPrice = Money.fromInt(1099, usd);
lowPrice.format("000.000");
> 010.990

Money costPrice = Money.fromInt(10034530, usd);  // 100,345.30 usd

costPrice.format("###,###.##"); 
> 100,345.30

costPrice.format("S###,###.##"); 
> $100,345.3

costPrice.format("CC###,###.#0"); 
> US100,345.30

costPrice.format("CCC###,###.##"); 
> USD100,345.3

costPrice.format("SCC###,###.#0"); 
> $US100,345.30

final usd = Currency.create('USD', 2);
Money costPrice = Money.fromInt(10034530, usd);  // 100,345.30 usd
costPrice.format("SCC###,###.##"); 
> $US100,345.3

final jpy = Currency.create('JPY', 0, symbol: '¥');
Money costPrice = Money.fromInt(345, jpy);  // 345 yen
costPrice.format("SCCC#"); 
> ¥JPY345

// Bahraini dinar
final bhd = Currency.create('BHD', 3, symbol: 'BD', invertSeparators: true);
Money costPrice = Money.withInt(100345, bhd);  // 100.345 bhd
costPrice.format("SCCC0000,###"); 
> BDBHD0100,345

Exchange Rates

When manipulating monetary amounts you often need to convert between two currencies.

Money2 provide a simple method to convert a Money instance to another currency using an exchange rate.

To converts a Money instance into a target Currency use the Money.exchangeTo method.

To do this you need to define an exchange rate which is simply another Money instance. That 'exchange rate' Money instance is created with the target Currency and having a monetary value which represents the exchange rate.

Example

Lets say you have an invoice in Australian Dollars (AUD) which you need to convert to US Dollars (USD).

Start by google the exchange rate for AUD to USD. You are likely to find some similar to:

1 AUD = 0.68c USD

Which means that for each Australian Dollar you will recieve 0.68 US cents. (AKA I'm not traveling to the USA this year).

To do the above conversion:

// Create the source and the target Currencies
Currency aud = Currency.create("AUD", 2, pattern="SCCC 0.00");
Currency usd = Currency.create("USD", 2, pattern="SCCC 0.00");

// Create the AUD invoice amount ($10.00)
Money invoiceAmount = Money.fromInt(1000, aud);
print(invoiceAmount);
> $AUD 10.00

// Define the exchange rate in USD (0.68c)
Money auToUsExchangeRate = Money.fromInt(68, usd);
print(auToUsExchangeRate);
> $USD 0.68

// Now do the conversion.
Money usdAmount = invoiceAmount.exchangeTo(auToUsExchangeRate);
print(usdAmount);
> $USD 6.80

Comparison

Equality operator (==) returns true when both operands are in the same currency and have equal amount.

fiveDollars == fiveDollars;  // => true
fiveDollars == sevenDollars; // => false
fiveDollars == fiveEuros;    // => false (different currencies)

Money values can be compared with operators <, <=, >, >=, or method compareTo() from the interface Comparable<Money>.

This operators and method compareTo() can be used only between money values in the same currency. Runtime error will be thrown on attempt to compare values in different currencies.

fiveDollars < sevenDollars; // => true
fiveDollars > sevenDollars; // => false
fiveEuros < fiveDollars;    // throws ArgumentError!

Currency Predicates

To check that money value has an expected currency use methods isInCurrency(Currency) and isInSameCurrencyAs(Money):

fiveDollars.isInCurrency(usd); // => true
fiveDollars.isInCurrency(eur); // => false
fiveDollars.isInSameCurrencyAs(sevenDollars); // => true
fiveDollars.isInSameCurrencyAs(fiveEuros);    // => false

Value Sign Predicates

To check if some money amount is a credit, a debit or zero, use predicates:

  • Money.isNegative — returns true only if amount is less than 0.
  • Money.isPositive — returns true only if amount is greater than 0.
  • Money.isZero — returns true only if amount is 0.

Arithmetic Operations

The Money class is immutable, so each operation returns a new Money instance.

Money provides next arithmetic operators:

  • unary -()
  • +(Money)
  • -(Money)
  • *(num)
  • /(num)

Operators + and - must be used with operands in same currency, ArgumentError will be thrown otherwise.

final tenDollars = fiveDollars + fiveDollars;
final zeroDollars = fiveDollars - fiveDollars;

Operators *, / receive a num as the second operand. Both operators use schoolbook rounding to round result up to a minorUnits of a currency.

final fifteenCents = Money.fromBigInt(BigInt.from(15), usd);

final thirtyCents = fifteenCents * 2;  // $0.30
final eightCents = fifteenCents * 0.5; // $0.08 (rounded from 0.075)

Allocation

Allocation According to Ratios

Let our company have made a profit of 5 cents, which has ro be divided amongst a company (70%) and an investor (30%). Cents cant' be divided, so We can't give 3.5 and 1.5 cents. If we round up, the company gets 4 cents, the investor gets 2, which means we need to conjure up an additional cent.

The best solution to avoid this pitfall is to use allocation according to ratios.

final profit = Money.fromBigInt(BigInt.from(5), usd); // 5¢

var allocation = profit.allocationAccordingTo([70, 30]);
assert(allocation[0] == Money.fromBigInt(BigInt.from(4), usd)); // 4¢
assert(allocation[1] == Money.fromBigInt(BigInt.from(1), usd)); // 1¢

// The order of ratios is important:
allocation = profit.allocationAccordingTo([30, 70]);
assert(allocation[0] == Money.fromBigInt(BigInt.from(2), usd)); // 2¢
assert(allocation[1] == Money.fromBigInt(BigInt.from(3), usd)); // 3¢

Allocation to N Targets

An amount of money can be allocated to N targets using allocateTo().

final value = Money.fromBigInt(BigInt.from(800), usd); // $8.00

final allocation = value.allocationTo(3);
assert(allocation[0] == Money.fromBigInt(BigInt.from(267), usd)); // $2.67
assert(allocation[1] == Money.fromBigInt(BigInt.from(267), usd)); // $2.67
assert(allocation[2] == Money.fromBigInt(BigInt.from(266), usd)); // $2.66

Money encoding/decoding

API for encoding/decoding a money value enables an application to store value in a database or send over the network.

A money value can be encoded to any type. For example it can be coded as a string in the format like "USD 5.00".

Encoding

class MoneyToStringEncoder implements MoneyEncoder<String> {
  String encode(MoneyData data) {
    // Receives MoneyData DTO and produce
    // a string representation of money value...
    String major = data.getMajorUnits().toString();
    String mainor = data.getMinorUnits().toString();

    return data.currency.code + " " + major + "." + minor;
  }
}


final encoded = fiveDollars.encodedBy(MoneyToStringEncoder());
// Now we can save `encoded` to database...

Decoding

class StringToMoneyDecoder implements MoneyDecoder<String> {

  Currencies _currencies;

  StringToMoneyDecoder(this._currencies) {
    if (_currencies == null) {
      throw ArgumentError.notNull('currencies');
    }
  }

  /// Returns decoded `MoneyData` or throws a `FormatException`.
  MoneyData decode(String encoded) {
    // If `encoded` has an invalid format throws FormatException;
    
    // Extracts currency code from `encoded`:
    final currencyCode = ...;

    // Tries to find information about a currency:
    final currency = _currencies.find(currencyCode);
    if (currency == null) {
      throw FormatException('Unknown currency: $currencyCode.');
    }
    
    // Using `currency.precision`, extracts minorUnits from `encoded`:
    final minorUnits = ...;
    
    return MoneyData.from(minorUnits, currency);
  }
}
try {
  final value = Money.decoding('USD 5.00', MyMoneyDecoder(myCurrencies));

  // ...
} on FormatException {
  // ...
}

Libraries

money2
Money2 is a fork of LitGroup's Money package. [...]