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SIMD-based Linear algebra with Dart

Table of contents

Linear algebra

    In a few words, linear algebra is a branch of mathematics that is working with vectors and matrices.

    Let's give a simple definition of Vector and Matrix. Vector is an ordered set of numbers, representing a point in the space where the vector is directed from the origin. Matrix is a collection of vectors, used to map vectors from one space to another.

    Vectors and matrices are extremely powerful tools, which can be used in real-life applications, such as machine learning algorithms. There are many implementations of these great mathematical entities in a plenty of programming languages, and as Dart offers developers good instrumentarium, e.g. highly optimized virtual machine and rich out-of-the-box library, Dart-based implementation of vectors and matrices has to be quite performant.

    Among myriad of standard Dart tools there are SIMD data types. Namely support of SIMD computational architecture served as a source of inspiration for creating this library.

What is SIMD?

    SIMD stands for Single instruction, multiple data - it is a computer architecture, that allows to perform uniform operations in parallel on huge amount of data. For instance, one has two arrays:

  • a = <code>10, 20, 30, 40</code>
  • b = <code>50, 60, 70, 80</code>

and one needs to add these arrays element-wise. Using the regular architecture this operation could be done in this manner:

    We need to do 4 operations one by one in a row. Using SIMD architecture we may perform one mathematical operations on several operands in parallel, thus element-wise sum of two arrays will be done for just one step:

Vectors

A couple of words about the underlying architecture

    The library contains a high performance SIMD vector class, based on Float32x4 - Float32Vector. Most of operations in the vector class are performed in four "threads". This kind of parallelism is reached by special 128-bit processor registers, which are used directly by program code.

    Float32Vector is hidden from the library's users. You can create a Float32Vector instance via Vector factory (see examples below).

    The vector is absolutely immutable - there is no way to change once created instance. All vector operations lead to creation of a new vector instance (of course, if the operation is supposed to return Vector).

    The class implements Iterable<double> interface - so it's possible to use it as a regular iterable collection.

    It's possible to use vector instances as keys for HashMap and similar data structures and to look up a value by the vector-key, since the hash code is the same for equal vectors:

import 'package:ml_linalg/vector.dart';

final map = HashMap<Vector, bool>();

map[Vector.fromList([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])] = true;

print(map[Vector.fromList([1, 2, 3, 4, 5])]); // true
print(Vector.fromList([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]).hashCode == Vector.fromList([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]).hashCode); // true

Vector operations examples

Vectors sum
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
  final vector2 = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0]);
  final result = vector1 + vector2;
  print(result.toList()); // [3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0, 11.0]
Vectors subtraction
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0]);
  final vector2 = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 2.0, 3.0, 2.0]);
  final result = vector1 - vector2;
  print(result.toList()); // [2.0, 2.0, 4.0, 4.0, 6.0]
Element wise vector by vector multiplication
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
  final vector2 = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0]);
  final result = vector1 * vector2;
  print(result.toList()); // [2.0, 6.0, 12.0, 20.0, 30.0]
Element wise vector by vector division
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([6.0, 12.0, 24.0, 48.0, 96.0]);
  final vector2 = Vector.fromList([3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0]);
  final result = vector1 / vector2;
  print(result.toList()); // [2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0]
Euclidean norm
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0]);
  final result = vector1.norm();
  print(result); // sqrt(2^2 + 3^2 + 4^2 + 5^2 + 6^2) = sqrt(90) ~~ 9.48
Manhattan norm
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0]);
  final result = vector1.norm(Norm.manhattan);
  print(result); // 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 = 20.0
Mean value
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0]);
  final result = vector1.mean();
  print(result); // (2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6) / 5 = 4.0
Sum of all vector elements
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0]);
  final result = vector1.sum();
  print(result); // 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 = 20.0 (equivalent to Manhattan norm)
Dot product of two vectors
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
  final vector2 = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0]);
  final result = vector1.dot(vector2);
  print(result); // 1.0 * 2.0 + 2.0 * 3.0 + 3.0 * 4.0 + 4.0 * 5.0 + 5.0 * 6.0 = 70.0
Sum of a vector and a scalar
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
  final scalar = 5.0;
  final result = vector1 + scalar;
  print(result.toList()); // [6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0]
Subtraction of a scalar from a vector
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
  final scalar = 5.0;
  final result = vector1 - scalar;
  print(result.toList()); // [-4.0, -3.0, -2.0, -1.0, 0.0]
Multiplication (scaling) of a vector by a scalar
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
  final scalar = 5.0;
  final result = vector1 * scalar;
  print(result.toList()); // [5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0]
Division (scaling) of a vector by a scalar value
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([25.0, 50.0, 75.0, 100.0, 125.0]);
  final scalar = 5.0;
  final result = vector1.scalarDiv(scalar);
  print(result.toList()); // [5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0]
Euclidean distance between two vectors
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
  final vector2 = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0]);
  final result = vector1.distanceTo(vector2, distance: Distance.euclidean);
  print(result); // ~~2.23
Manhattan distance between two vectors
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
  final vector2 = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0]);
  final result = vector1.distanceTo(vector2, distance: Distance.manhattan);
  print(result); // 5.0
Cosine distance between two vectors
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector1 = Vector.fromList([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
  final vector2 = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0]);
  final result = vector1.distanceTo(vector2, distance: Distance.cosine);
  print(result); // 0.00506
Vector normalization using Euclidean norm
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector = Vector.fromList([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
  final result = vector.normalize(Norm.euclidean);
  print(result); // [0.134, 0.269, 0.404, 0.539, 0.674]
Vector normalization using Manhattan norm
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector = Vector.fromList([1.0, -2.0, 3.0, -4.0, 5.0]);
  final result = vector.normalize(Norm.manhattan);
  print(result); // [0.066, -0.133, 0.200, -0.266, 0.333]
Vector rescaling (min-max normalization)
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final vector = Vector.fromList([1.0, -2.0, 3.0, -4.0, 5.0, 0.0]);
  final result = vector.rescale();
  print(result); // [0.555, 0.222, 0.777, 0.0, 1.0, 0.444]

Matrices

    Along with SIMD vectors, the library presents SIMD-based Matrices. One can use the matrices via Matrix factory. The matrices are immutable as well as vectors and also they implement Iterable, to be precise - Iterable<Iterable<double>> interface, thus it's possible to use them as a regular iterable collection.

Matrix operations examples

Sum of a matrix and another matrix
import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

final matrix1 = Matrix.fromList([
  [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0],
  [5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0],
  [9.0, .0, -2.0, -3.0],
]);
final matrix2 = Matrix.fromList([
  [10.0, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0],
  [-5.0, 16.0, 2.0, 18.0],
  [2.0, -1.0, -2.0, -7.0],
]);
print(matrix1 + matrix2);
// [
//  [11.0, 22.0, 33.0, 44.0],
//  [0.0, 22.0, 9.0, 26.0],
//  [11.0, -1.0, -4.0, -10.0],
// ];
Sum of a matrix and a scalar
import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
  [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0],
  [5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0],
  [9.0, .0, -2.0, -3.0],
]);
print(matrix + 7);
//  [
//    [8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0],
//    [12.0, 13.0, 14.0, 15.0],
//    [16.0, 7.0, 5.0, 4.0],
//  ];
Multiplication of a matrix and a vector
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
    [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0],
    [5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0],
    [9.0, .0, -2.0, -3.0],
  ]);
  final vector = Vector.fromList([2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
  final result = matrix * vector;
  print(result); 
  // a vector-column [
  //  [40],
  //  [96],
  //  [-5],
  //]
Multiplication of a matrix and another matrix
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final matrix1 = Matrix.fromList([
    [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0],
    [5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0],
    [9.0, .0, -2.0, -3.0],
  ]);
  final matrix2 = Matrix.fromList([
    [1.0, 2.0],
    [5.0, 6.0],
    [9.0, .0],
    [-9.0, 1.0],
  ]);
  final result = matrix1 * matrix2;
  print(result);
  //[
  // [2.0, 18.0],
  // [26.0, 54.0],
  // [18.0, 15.0],
  //]
Multiplication of a matrix and a scalar
import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
  [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0],
  [5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0],
  [9.0, .0, -2.0, -3.0],
]);
print(matrix * 3);
// [
//   [3.0, 6.0, 9.0, 12.0],
//   [15.0, 18.0, 21.0, 24.0],
//   [27.0, .0, -6.0, -9.0],
// ];
Element wise matrices subtraction
import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

final matrix1 = Matrix.fromList([
  [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0],
  [5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0],
  [9.0, .0, -2.0, -3.0],
]);
final matrix2 = Matrix.fromList([
  [10.0, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0],
  [-5.0, 16.0, 2.0, 18.0],
  [2.0, -1.0, -2.0, -7.0],
]);
print(matrix1 - matrix2);
// [
//   [-9.0, -18.0, -27.0, -36.0],
//   [10.0, -10.0, 5.0, -10.0],
//   [7.0, 1.0, .0, 4.0],
// ];
Matrix transposition
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';
  
  final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
    [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0],
    [5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0],
    [9.0, .0, -2.0, -3.0],
  ]);
  final result = matrix.transpose();
  print(result);
  //[
  // [1.0, 5.0, 9.0],
  // [2.0, 6.0, .0],
  // [3.0, 7.0, -2.0],
  // [4.0, 8.0, -3.0],
  //]
Matrix row wise reduce
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
    [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0],
    [5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0],
  ]); 
  final reduced = matrix.reduceRows((combine, row) => combine + row);
  print(reduced); // [6.0, 8.0, 10.0, 12.0]
Matrix column wise reduce
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
    [11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0],
    [15.0, 16.0, 17.0, 18.0],
    [21.0, 22.0, 23.0, 24.0],
  ]);
  final result = matrix.reduceColumns((combine, vector) => combine + vector);
  print(result); // [50, 66, 90]
Matrix row wise map
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
    [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0],
    [5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0],
  ]); 
  final modifier = Vector.filled(4, 2.0);
  final newMatrix = matrix.rowsMap((row) => row + modifier);
  print(newMatrix); 
  // [
  //  [3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0],
  //  [7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0],
  // ]
Matrix column wise map
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
    [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0],
    [5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0],
  ]); 
  final modifier = Vector.filled(2, 2.0);
  final newMatrix = matrix.columnsMap((column) => column + modifier);
  print(newMatrix); 
  // [
  //  [3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0],
  //  [7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0],
  // ]
Getting max value of the matrix
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
    [11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0],
    [15.0, 16.0, 17.0, 18.0],
    [21.0, 22.0, 23.0, 24.0],
    [24.0, 32.0, 53.0, 74.0],
  ]);
  final maxValue = matrix.max();
  print(maxValue);
  // 74.0
Getting min value of the matrix
  import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

  final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
    [11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0],
    [15.0, 16.0, 0.0, 18.0],
    [21.0, 22.0, -23.0, 24.0],
    [24.0, 32.0, 53.0, 74.0],
  ]);
  final minValue = matrix.min();
  print(minValue);
  // -23.0

Matrix indexing and sampling

    To access a certain row vector of the matrix one may use [] operator:

import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
    [11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0],
    [15.0, 16.0, 0.0, 18.0],
    [21.0, 22.0, -23.0, 24.0],
    [24.0, 32.0, 53.0, 74.0],
  ]);

final row = matrix[2];

print(row); // [21.0, 22.0, -23.0, 24.0]

    The library's matrix interface offers sample method, that is supposed to return a new matrix, consisting of different segments of a source matrix. It's possible to build a new matrix from certain columns and vectors and they should not be necessarily subsequent.

    For example, one needs to create a matrix from rows 1, 3, 5 and columns 1 and 3. To do so, it's needed to perform the following:

import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
//| 1 |         | 3 |                
  [4.0,   8.0,   12.0,   16.0,  34.0], // 1 Range(0, 1)
  [20.0,  24.0,  28.0,   32.0,  23.0],
  [36.0,  .0,   -8.0,   -12.0,  12.0], // 3 Range(2, 3)
  [16.0,  1.0,  -18.0,   3.0,   11.0],
  [112.0, 10.0,  34.0,   2.0,   10.0], // 5 Range(4, 5)
]);
final result = matrix.sample(
  rowIndices: [0, 2, 4],
  columnIndices: [0, 2],
);
print(result);
/*
  [4.0,   12.0],
  [36.0,  -8.0],
  [112.0, 34.0]
*/

Add new columns to a matrix

import 'package:ml_linalg/linalg.dart';

final matrix = Matrix.fromList([
  [11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0],
  [15.0, 16.0, 0.0, 18.0],
  [21.0, 22.0, -23.0, 24.0],
  [24.0, 32.0, 53.0, 74.0],
], dtype: DType.float32);

final updatedMatrix = matrix.insertColumns(0, [
  Vector.fromList([1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0]),
  Vector.fromList([-1.0, -2.0, -3.0, -4.0]),
]);

print(updatedMatrix);
// [
//  [1.0, -1.0, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0],
//  [2.0, -2.0, 15.0, 16.0, 0.0, 18.0],
//  [3.0, -3.0, 21.0, 22.0, -23.0, 24.0],
//  [4.0, -4.0, 24.0, 32.0, 53.0, 74.0],
// ]

print(updatedMatrix == matrix); // false

Contacts

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Libraries

axis
distance
dtype
linalg
matrix
matrix_norm
norm
sort_direction
vector