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A dart implementation of the "PRECIS Framework: Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison of Internationalized Strings in Application Protocols" and profiles thereof.

This is a ported implementation based on the rocks.xmpp.precis Project by Christian Schudt. Large portions of the character handling were ported from the Java SDK, since the functionality (while supported in the compiler/core) is not exposed to the dart language.


PRECIS validates and prepares Unicode strings so that they can safely be used in application protocols.

For example, when dealing with usernames and passwords. If strings are used for these authentication and authorization decisions the security of an application can be compromised if an entity providing a given string is connected to the wrong account or online resource based on different interpretations of that string. A classic example is when people include zero-width unicode spaces in a username, which makes it easily confusable with the username with no spacing in it.

PRECIS takes care of such issues.

This library supports the following specifications:

  • RFC 8264: PRECIS Framework: Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison of Internationalized Strings in Application Protocols
  • RFC 8265: Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison of Internationalized Strings Representing Usernames and Passwords
  • RFC 8266: Preparation, Enforcement, and Comparison of Internationalized Strings Representing Nicknames

PRECIS obsoletes Stringprep (RFC 3454).


For most use cases, all you need to do is choose an existing profile from the Package then prepare or enforce a string.

import 'package:precis/precis.dart' as precis;

final profile1 = precis.usernameCaseMapped;
final profile2 = precis.usernameCasePreserved;
final profile3 = precis.opaqueString;
final profile4 = precis.nickname;

If you are feeling adventurous, you can extend the abstract PrecisProfile and define your own custom profile. However, this is discouraged by RFC 8264.


Preparation ensures that characters are allowed, but (usually) does not apply any mapping rules. The following throws an exception because the string contains a character from Unicode category Lt which is disallowed.

precis.usernameCaseMapped.prepare('\u01C5'); // Capital Letter D with Small Letter Z with Caron

The exception thrown will usually be an InvalidCodePointException that will give the developer information about which character in the string was invalid. Any other exceptions thrown (as well as this one) with extend PrecisException for ease of handling.


Enforcement applies a set of rules to a string in order to transform it to a canonical form so it can be used in string comparisons.

final enforced = precis.usernameCaseMapped.enforce("UpperCaseUsernmae"); // => uppercaseusername

Enforcement does much more than the above lower case mapping, though. It will also map ambiguous characters to their unambiguous forms. The following example maps all of the characters to Latin Small Letter A with Ring Above (U+00E5).

final ang = precis.usernameCaseMapped.enfoce('\u212B'); // Angstrom Sign
final a = precis.usernameCaseMapped.enfoce('\u0041\u030A'); // Latin Capital A + Combining Ring Above
final aRing = precis.usernameCaseMapped.enfoce('\u00C5'); // Latin Capital A with Ring Above
// ang == a => true
// a == aRing => true

The following example throws an InvalidDirectionalityException because it violates the Bidi Rule (RFC 5893). This exception extends PrecisException.


If a string contains prohibited code points an InvalidCodePointException is thrown, just like during preparation.


You can use PrecisProfile.toComparableString(String) to check if two strings compare to each other:

final profile = precis.usernameCaseMapped;
if (profile.toComparableString('foobar') == profile.toComparableString('FooBar')) {
    // Username already exists

Or you can use as a Comparator:

if ("foobar", "FooBar") == 0) {
    // Username already exists

NOTE: A profile may use different rules during comparison than during enforcement (such as the Nickname profile, RFC 8266).