match

match extension methods for Dart. Inspired by pattern matching from functional programming languages and Kotlin's when expression.

This library contains @match annotation for generating custom match and matchAny extensions and extension methods for dart builtin types.

Setup

Add the following to your pubspec.yaml:

dependencies:
  match: ^0.2.0
dev_dependencies:
  build_runner:
  match_generator: ^0.2.0

If you are using the @match annotation run:

pub run build_runner build

Class match

Similar to sealed classes in Kotlin (discriminated unions) a match and matchAny extension method for a single level class hierarchy can be generated using the @match annotation. All classes must be defined in the same file.

//types.dart:
import 'package:match/match.dart';

part 'types.g.dart';

@match
abstract class Expr {}

class Value implements Expr {
  int value;
  Value({required this.value});
}

class Add implements Expr {
  Expr e1;
  Expr e2;
  Add({required this.e1, required this.e2});
}

match and matchAny extension methods on Expr function will be generated in the types.g.dart file. And can be used as follows:

int eval(Expr expr) {
  return expr.match(
    value: (v) => v.value,
    add: (a) => eval(a.e1) + eval(a.e2),
  );
}

final e = Add(
  e1: Add(e1: Value(value: 10), e2: Value(value: 20)),
  e2: Value(value: 20),
);

expect(eval(e), 50);

final v = Value(value: 20);
final result = v.matchAny(add: (a) => 1, any: () => 2);
expect(result, 2);

The match method takes a required named function argument per subclass. matchAny is like match but with optional named functions, instead it takes a required named function argument any that will called if none of the provided arguments matches.

Enum match

An enum can also be annotated with @match to generate a match and matchAny extension methods:

//types.dart:
import 'package:match/match.dart';

part 'types.g.dart';

@match
enum Color {
  red,
  green,
  blue,
}

final r = Color.red;
final result = r.match(
  red: () => 1,
  green: () => 2,
  blue: () => 3,
);
expect(result, 1);

final result = r.matchAny(
  green: () => 1,
  any: () => 2,
);
expect(result, 2);

Dart builtin types match

For Dart builtin types the match extension methods works a bit differently. Here we have a DSL for match cases that allows for advanced value matching. Lets look at an example where we match an integer:

import 'package:match/match.dart';

final x = 10;
final y = true;
final result = x.match({
  gt(100): () => 1,
  eq(10) | eq(20): () => 2,
  range(30, 40): () => 3,
  any: () => 3,
});

expect(result, 2);

Each case is expressed using a tiny DSL that allows for building more complex matching. The DSL consists of functions that matches the value of x and operators that combines the functions for more complicated matching. If a case matches the values of x the corresponding function is run and the result returned. If no cases matches, an exception will be thrown at runtime.

We have the following general combining operators for the DSL:

  • e1 | e2 the "or" operator matches x if either e1 or e2 matches x.
  • e1 & e2 the "and" operator matches x if both e1 and e2 matches x.

Additionally we have the "guard" operators > and >>:

import 'package:match/match.dart';

final x = 10;
final y = true;
final result = x.match({
  eq(10) > !y : () => 1,
  eq(10) > y : () => 2,
  eq(10) >> () => !y : () => 3,
  eq(10) >> () => y : () => 4,
});

expect(result, 2);
  • e1 > bool where the right hand side of > is a boolean expression that needs to return true for x to match the case.
  • e1 >> bool Function() where the right hand side of >> is a boolean function that needs to return true for the x to match the case.

String.match

import 'package:match/match.dart';

final s = 'aaa';
final result = s.match({
  eq('aaa') | eq('ccc'): () => 1,
  eq('bbb'): () => 2,
  any: () => 3,
});

expect(result, 1);

Supported match functions:

  • eq(s) matches if x == s
  • any matches any values of x

num.match (double/int)

import 'package:match/match.dart';

final x = 10;
final result = x.match({
  gt(100): () => 1,
  eq(10) | eq(20): () => 2,
  range(30, 40): () => 3,
  any: () => 3,
});

expect(result, 2);

Supported match functions:

  • eq(n) matches if x == n
  • lt(n) matches if x < n
  • gt(n) matches if x > n
  • lte(n) matches if x <= n
  • gte(n) matches if x >= n
  • range(from, to) matches if x >= from && x <= to
  • any matches any values of x

Libraries

match
match_extensions