DVote Flutter Crypto

This project is a Flutter Plugin that provides access to native cryptographic implementations written in Rust. It also provides a fallback pure-Dart implementation.

It provides out-of-the box support for cross-compiling native Rust code for all available iOS and Android architectures and call it from plain Dart using Foreign Function Interface.

Overview

The library provides:

  • ZK Snarks proof generation using ZA
  • Crypto wallet generation, key derivation and signing
  • Poseidon hash for hexadecimal and plain strings (native only)
  • Symmetric encryption using NaCl
  • Asymmetric encryption using NaCl (Dart only)

The following platforms and architectures are supported:

  • Android
    • arm v7
    • arm64
    • x86
    • x86_64
  • iOS
    • arm64
    • x86_64

Cross compilation for MacOS, Linux and Windows should not be difficult but is not available yet.

For a census of 1 million claims, ZK proof generation times are in the range of:

  • 2 to 4 seconds on a desktop computer
  • 3 seconds on a 2020 iPhone SE
  • 7 seconds (Android ARM 64) to 52 seconds (older Android ARM v7)

Considerations

  • Every census size needs the generation of a specific setup + proving key
    • The setup and the ceremony are out of the scope of this project
  • A census of 1M claims takes 20Mb of space
    • Such data should be hosted elsewhere other than the repo itself
    • Standard proving keys can be placed on a CDN/IPFS and be fetched+cached when the app launches

Usage

Add dvote_crypto to your pubspec.yaml file

dependencies:
  dvote_crypto: ^0.10.1

HD Wallets

Generating mnemonics and computing private/public keys

final wallet = EthereumWallet.random(hdPath: "m/44'/60'/0'/0/5");
final mnemonic = wallet.mnemonic;
final privKey = wallet.privateKey;
final pubKey = wallet.publicKey;
final addr = wallet.address;

Signing

Computing signatures using ECDSA cryptography

import 'package:dvote_crypto/dvote_crypto.dart';

// Signing plain text
final hexSignature = signString(messageToSign, privateKey);
final recoveredPubKey = recoverSignerPubKey(hexSignature, messageToSign);
final valid = isValidSignature(hexSignature, messageToSign, publicKey);
assert(valid);

// Signing reproduceable JSON data
final hexSignature2 = signJsonPayload({"hello": 1234}, privateKey);
final recoveredPubKey = recoverJsonSignerPubKey(hexSignature2, {"hello": 1234});
final valid2 = isValidJsonSignature(hexSignature2, {"hello": 1234}, publicKey);
assert(valid2);

Also available as async non-UI blocking functions:

import 'package:dvote_crypto/dvote_crypto.dart';

// Signing plain text
final hexSignature = await signStringAsync(messageToSign, privateKey);
final recoveredPubKey = await recoverSignerPubKeyAsync(hexSignature, messageToSign);
final valid = await isValidSignatureAsync(hexSignature, messageToSign, publicKey);
assert(valid);

// Signing reproduceable JSON data
final hexSignature2 = await signJsonPayloadAsync({"hello": 1234}, privateKey);
final recoveredPubKey = await recoverJsonSignerPubKeyAsync(hexSignature2, {"hello": 1234});
final valid2 = await isValidJsonSignatureAsync(hexSignature2, {"hello": 1234}, publicKey);
assert(valid2);

Symmetric Encryption

NaCl SecretBox string and byte encryption

import 'package:dvote_crypto/dvote_crypto.dart';

String encrypted = Symmetric.encryptString("hello", "super-secret");
String decrypted = Symmetric.decryptString(encrypted, "super-secret");
assert(decrypted == "hello");

encrypted = await Symmetric.encryptStringAsync("hello", "super-secret");
decrypted = await Symmetric.decryptStringAsync(encrypted, "super-secret");
assert(decrypted == "hello");

// Available
static Uint8List encryptRaw(Uint8List buffer, String passphrase);
static Future<Uint8List> encryptRawAsync(Uint8List buffer, String passphrase);
static String encryptBytes(Uint8List buffer, String passphrase);
static Future<String> encryptBytesAsync(Uint8List buffer, String passphrase);
static String encryptString(String message, String passphrase);
static Future<String> encryptStringAsync(String message, String passphrase);
static Uint8List decryptRaw(Uint8List encryptedBuffer, String passphrase);
static Future<Uint8List> decryptRawAsync(Uint8List encryptedBuffer, String passphrase);
static Uint8List decryptBytes(String encryptedBase64, String passphrase);
static Future<Uint8List> decryptBytesAsync(String encryptedBase64, String passphrase);

Asymmetric Encryption

NaCl SealedBox string and byte encryption

import 'package:dvote_crypto/dvote_crypto.dart';

String encrypted = Asymmetric.encryptString("hello", hexPublicKey);
String decrypted = Asymmetric.decryptString(encrypted, hexPrivateKey);
assert(decrypted == "hello");

encrypted = await Asymmetric.encryptStringAsync("hello", hexPublicKey);
decrypted = await Asymmetric.decryptStringAsync(encrypted, hexPrivateKey);
assert(decrypted == "hello");

// Available
static Uint8List encryptRaw(Uint8List payload, String hexPublicKey);
static Future<Uint8List> encryptRawAsync(Uint8List payload, String hexPublicKey);
static String encryptBytes(Uint8List payload, String hexPublicKey);
static Future<String> encryptBytesAsync(Uint8List payload, String hexPublicKey);
static String encryptString(String message, String hexPublicKey);
static Future<String> encryptStringAsync(String message, String hexPublicKey);
static Uint8List decryptRaw(Uint8List encryptedBuffer, String hexPrivateKey);
static Future<Uint8List> decryptRawAsync(Uint8List encryptedBuffer, String hexPrivateKey);
static Uint8List decryptBytes(String encryptedBase64, String hexPrivateKey);
static Future<Uint8List> decryptBytesAsync(String encryptedBase64, String hexPrivateKey);
static String decryptString(String encryptedBase64, String hexPrivateKey);
static Future<String> decryptStringAsync(String encryptedBase64, String hexPrivateKey);

Hashing

Poseidon hash is only available when using the native Rust library

import 'package:dvote_crypto/dvote_crypto.dart';

final hash1 = Hashing.digestHexClaim("0x1234...");
final hash2 = Hashing.digestStringClaim("Hello world");

Zero Knowledge Snarks

Generating ZK proofs is only available when using the native Rust library

import 'package:dvote_crypto/dvote_crypto.dart';

final circuitInputs = {...};
final proof1 = Snarks.generateZkProof(circuitInputs, "/path/to/proving.key");
final proof2 = await Snarks.generateZkProofAsync(circuitInputs, "/path/to/proving.key");

Development

Import the native code

The Rust source code is located at https://github.com/vocdoni/dvote-rs-ffi and mounted on the rust folder by git.

$ git submodule init
$ git submodule update

Compile the library

  • Make sure that the Android NDK is installed
    • You might also need LLVM from the SDK manager
  • Ensure that the env variable $ANDROID_NDK_HOME points to the NDK base folder
    • It may look like /Users/name/Library/Android/sdk/ndk-bundle on MacOS
    • And look like /home/name/dev/android/ndk-bundle on Linux
  • On the rust folder:
    • Run make to see the available actions
    • Run make init to install the Rust targets
    • Run make all to build the libraries and the .h file
  • Update the name of your library in Cargo.toml
    • You'll need to update the symlinks to target the new file names. See iOS and Android below.

Generated artifacts:

  • Android libraries
    • rust/target/aarch64-linux-android/release/libdvote.so
    • rust/target/armv7-linux-androideabi/release/libdvote.so
    • rust/target/i686-linux-android/release/libdvote.so
    • rust/target/x86_64-linux-android/release/libdvote.so
  • iOS library
    • rust/target/universal/release/libdvote.a
  • Bindings header
    • rust/target/bindings.h

Reference the shared objects

iOS

Ensure that ios/dvote_native.podspec includes the following directives:

...
   s.source           = { :path => '.' }
+  s.public_header_files = 'Classes**/*.h'
   s.source_files = 'Classes/**/*'
+  s.static_framework = true
+  s.vendored_libraries = "**/*.a"
   s.dependency 'Flutter'
   s.platform = :ios, '9.0'
...

On flutter/ios, place a symbolic link to the libdvote.a file

$ cd flutter/ios
$ ln -s ../rust/target/universal/release/libdvote.a .

Append the generated function signatures from rust/target/bindings.h into flutter/ios/Classes/DVotePlugin.h

$ cd flutter/ios
$ cat ../rust/target/bindings.h >> Classes/DVotePlugin.h

In our case, it will append char *rust_greeting(const char *to); and void rust_cstr_free(char *s);

NOTE: By default, XCode will skip bundling the libdvote.a library if it detects that it is not being used. To force its inclusion, add a dummy method in SwiftDVotePlugin.swift that uses at least one of the native functions:

...
  public func dummyMethodToEnforceBundling() {
    rust_greeting("");
  }
}

If you won't be using Flutter channels, the rest of methods can be left empty.

Android

Similarly as we did on iOS with libdvote.a, create symlinks pointing to the binary libraries on rust/target.

You should have the following structure on flutter/android for each architecture:

src
└── main
    └── jniLibs
        ├── arm64-v8a
        │   └── libdvote.so@ -> ../../../../../rust/target/aarch64-linux-android/release/libdvote.so
        ├── armeabi-v7a
        │   └── libdvote.so@ -> ../../../../../rust/target/armv7-linux-androideabi/release/libdvote.so
        ├── x86
        │   └── libdvote.so@ -> ../../../../../rust/target/i686-linux-android/release/libdvote.so
        └── x86_64
            └── libdvote.so@ -> ../../../../../rust/target/x86_64-linux-android/release/libdvote.so

As before, if you are not using Flutter channels, the methods within android/src/main/kotlin/com/dvote/dvote_native/DvoteNativePlugin.kt can be left empty.

Declare the bindings in Dart

In /lib/dvote_native.dart, initialize the function bindings from Dart and implement any additional logic that you need.

Load the library:

final DynamicLibrary nativeExampleLib = Platform.isAndroid
    ? DynamicLibrary.open("libdvote.so")
    : DynamicLibrary.process();

Find the symbols we want to use, with the appropriate Dart signatures:

final Pointer<Utf8> Function(Pointer<Utf8>) rustGreeting = nativeExampleLib
    .lookup<NativeFunction<Pointer<Utf8> Function(Pointer<Utf8>)>>("rust_greeting")
    .asFunction();

final void Function(Pointer<Utf8>) freeGreeting = nativeExampleLib
    .lookup<NativeFunction<Void Function(Pointer<Utf8>)>>("rust_cstr_free")
    .asFunction();

Call them:

// Prepare the parameters
final name = "John Smith";
final Pointer<Utf8> namePtr = Utf8.toUtf8(name);
print("- Calling rust_greeting with argument:  $namePtr");

// Call rust_greeting
final Pointer<Utf8> resultPtr = rustGreeting(namePtr);
print("- Result pointer:  $resultPtr");

final String greetingStr = Utf8.fromUtf8(resultPtr);
print("- Response string:  $greetingStr");

When we are done using greetingStr, tell Rust to free it, since the Rust implementation kept it alive for us to use it.

freeGreeting(resultPtr);

Publishing to pub.dev

  • Run make init to start developing
  • Run make publish to update the symbolic links and upload to pub.dev

More information

TO DO

  • Document examples of Poseidon hash, generate Merkle Proofs and ZK proofs

Libraries

asyncify
bridge
constants
dvote_crypto
encryption
encryption
encryption
hashing
hashing
signature
signature
signature
snarks
snarks
stubs
wallet
wallet
wallet