Built Collections bring the benefits of immutability to your Dart code via the builder pattern.
Each of the core SDK collections is split in two: a mutable builder class and an immutable "built" class. Builders are for computation, "built" classes are for safely sharing with no need to copy defensively.
- are immutable, if the elements/keys/values used are immutable;
- are comparable;
- are hashable;
- reject nulls;
- require generic type parameters;
- reject wrong-type elements;
- use copy-on-write to avoid copying unnecessarily.
See below for details on each of these points.
A project can benefit greatly from using Built Collections throughout. Methods that will not mutate a collection can accept the "built" version, making it clear that no mutation will happen and completely avoiding the need for defensive copying.
For code that is public to other projects or teams not using
Built Collections, prefer to accept
Iterable where possible. That way
your code is compatible with SDK collections, Built Collections and any
other collection implementation that builds on
It's okay to accept
Map if needed. Built Collections
provide efficient conversion to their SDK counterparts via
Built Collections are Immutable
Built Collections do not offer any methods that modify the collection. In
order to make changes, first call
toBuilder to get a mutable builder.
In particular, Built Collections do not implement or extend their mutable
Iterable, but not
Iterable, but not
BuiltSetMultimap share no interface with the SDK collections.
Built Collections can contain mutable elements. However, this use is not recommended, as mutations to the elements will break comparison and hashing.
Built Collections are Comparable
Core SDK collections do not offer equality checks by default.
Built Collections do a deep comparison against other Built Collections of the same type, only. Hashing is used to make repeated comparisons fast.
Built Collections are Hashable
Core SDK collections do not compute a deep hashCode.
Built Collections do compute, and cache, a deep hashCode. That means they can be stored inside collections that need hashing, such as hash sets and hash maps. They also use the cached hash code to speed up repeated comparisons.
Built Collections Reject Nulls
null in a collection is usually a bug, so Built Collections and their
builders throw if given a
null element, key or value.
Built Collections Require Generic Type Parameters
List<dynamic> is error-prone because it can be assigned to a
any type without warning. So, all Built Collections must be created with
explicit element, key or value types.
Built Collections Reject Wrong-type Elements, Keys and Values
Collections that happen to contain elements, keys or values that are not of the right type can lead to difficult-to-find bugs. So, all Built Collections and their builders are aggressive about validating types, even with checked mode disabled.
Built Collections Avoid Copying Unnecessarily
Built Collections and their builder and helper types collaborate to avoid copying unless it's necessary.
BuiltSetMultimap.toMap do not make
a copy, but return a copy-on-write wrapper. So, Built Collections can be
efficiently and easily used with code that needs core SDK collections but
does not mutate them.
- The Built Collection List. [...]
- The Built Collection ListMultimap. [...]
- The Built Collection Map. [...]
- The Built Collection Set. [...]
- The Built Collection SetMultimap. [...]
- The Built Collection builder for BuiltList. [...]
- The Built Collection builder for BuiltListMultimap. [...]
- The Built Collection builder for BuiltMap. [...]
- The Built Collection builder for BuiltSet. [...]
- The Built Collection builder for BuiltSetMultimap. [...]